Deciding To Take Loan By Customers And Lending By The Banks

The term of a loan is one of the most important factors when it comes to determining which loan to be accepted or when it comes to the bank, what they should provide. There are a couple of items that will vary when it comes loan are:

  • The rate of interest
  • The duration of the loan
  • The type of the loan

The premium that the customers need to pay the banks for making use of their money is known as the interest, therefore, low rate of interest is a good idea for borrowers. The time the customers will be taking to repay the loan is known as the duration of the loan, hence a small number is a good idea again because this will mean that the rate of interest will be low as well. The number of cash customers will be payable during every payment will depend on the type of loan you will borrowing, that’s why type is an important factor. And about types of binary options, you can read here.

Factors on which bank will decide to lend money

It is important that the customers have a means of paying back the money or they should make sure that they have assets that are enough to repay their loan in case other payment mode fails, otherwise, the banks will not provide even a single cent. There are a couple of key features that banks will look for in the finances of the customers such as:

  1. The main assets that the customers own that can be seized by the bank if they fail to pay the loan and these assets are known as collateral. Generally, car and house of the customers are considered as collateral.
  2. When one applies for the loan, credit plays a very important role. If the customer has a bad credit, it will be very difficult to get a loan but, if you agree to accept loan terms that are less attractive like a high rate of interest and low limits, then you might get the approval.
  3. The loaners will make sure to know whether the customers can afford to make the loan payments, hence income plays an important role. If you have a high income the lenders will feel comfortable in lending the money. The higher the income is the more comfortable they are in allowing you to borrow the money.

Did You Know Your Spelling Mistakes Can Affect Your Bank Balance?

A human brain is a peculiar machine which reads only what it wants to read and not what is actually printed or written. There are innumerable tests which everyone must have attempted at some point or another to show this fact; for example, remember the test wherein the first and the last letter of a word are intact while the rest of the letters are jumbled and yet a majority of people read the word right because that is how the brain is wired. While this in itself is good on an intellectual aspect the same cannot be said on the financial front. Apparently, your spelling mistakes can have serious repercussions on your bank balance.


Fraudsters hijack URLs of famous brands and then with a minor change in spelling create a fake website which looks exactly like the real one. If you are not alert then you won’t notice the difference between the real and the fake one and then all hell breaks loose. You will encounter pop-ups and alerts and prompts that will convince you that you have won a lucky draw because you are the 100th customer so you can claim a free gift by just paying the shipping fees. The word “free” is very potent; everybody likes free things. Once you key in your details and make the payment you are in for trouble as you will face recurring charges for things that you have nothing to do with.

What can you do?

To begin with, do not be fooled with the padlock icon on your address bar because even that can be fake. So, the only method is to be attentive when you key in details on your computer especially on websites where you need to part with your credit card or social security number. Pop-ups are dangerous so be wary of them; remember there are no free lunches anywhere. Don’t fall for the advertisements too because even they will be scams.

Hence, for beginners ensure you have a proper antivirus and malware in place and all the firewalls are up. Secondly, unless you recheck the site details do not part with any important information.

So, the next time you are searching for bitcoin code and type it wrong there is a possibility that you will end up on a scam site. Therefore, know more about the software before getting conned by scam sites and always remember to check the spelling of the website you are trying to access.

Bitcoin loophole a brainchild of Steve McKay was awarded the best binary trading app award in 2017. It is also the best auto trading app in the digital trading market.  In a day it operates 1342 trading session, the number is quite high compared to any other trading app in the market and its accuracy it is also admirable. In a day it may see single or no loss which is also quite impressing. It has both fully automated trading Binary trading option and semi-automated as well, it is up to the preference of the trader to choose their own option.

The trade reviewers have claimed to check the authenticity of the software with the lawyers and accountants and found it to be an authentic and trustworthy platform to trade.

Let us discuss its features which make it so popular within few days of launch.

  • You can do learning while earning which means it is loaded with market study material to help you study the past market which will help you to trade.
  • It has a record of 89% winning in a week; this means it has more potential to make a good profit.
  • It is a transparent trading tool, which has 1342:1 trade loss ratio, this figure no other software will ever reveal about their trade.
  • The app can be used from your smartphone and works really well on both Android and Windows.
  • The app works on the laptop, any PC and Mac as well.
  • You will receive 21 to 97 signals every day to help you make a profitable trade in a day.

It is a high-speed computing software that automatically invests money in the stock exchange worldwide and has lost only once in the last four years of its launch. In the last four years, Bitcoin loophole has operated 1478 trading session and has faced just a single loss. As it is a web-based app, it can be accessed from anywhere just internet connection is needed to operate it. To use this platform one does not need any prior knowledge of trading. As it can work fully automated so prior knowledge of the software is also not required. The traders get multiple signals on a day to help them to make a winning decision. Bitcoin loophole is indeed a legit software to rely upon especially for the aspiring traders who want to enter the trading market. to learn more Bitcoin loophole full review is here.




Trading today can be done through the smartphone from anywhere. And there are so many exchanges, so many trading instruments. So crafting a fully customized trading portfolio is easy. Budget requirements, time availability and the expertise in the field would all vary from one trader to another. The present-day trading systems are all about bridging the gaps and making the domain easy for every trader out there. This, in turn, leads to the improvement in the demand and thus has resulted in the improvement in the stock market as well.

Online trading convenience

A trader might choose an online trading system like QProfit System for various reasons. But there is one thing that remains common in almost all of them and that is the convenience. This post talks about the many benefits that the binary options bot delivers. There are many more such trading platforms present today.

Brokerless difference

Most online trading systems would be supported by brokers or a brokerage firm. The trader who signs up and creates an account would be handled by a broker. But the interactions can all happen through the online systems and this would be backed up by an easy user-interface.

Recently, there has been an upgrade that many online trading systems are getting and that is going brokerless. The problem about having a broker is about allowing a centralized control on the trading activities. Whenever there is a single point of control, this would also act as the single point of failure. So if the broker fails then the whole system crashes. The trader and the online trading system would both have to face the losses. Decentralized control is now gaining a lot of popularity with the increased adoption of the Blockchain technology.

When the broker is removed then there would be a price cut that is prone to occur, which would allow online trading systems to charge the traders less. The liquidity pool would be decentralized in this approach. As a result, the trader would be able to retain full control over what the trades and would also be charged less. The liquidity would also be relatively higher with the user owning the control. This method of trading would result in a less corrupt scenario. So those brokers who charge exorbitant fees and those that take biased decisions would all be replaced with these systems. Only the most reliable brokers would be able to survive this new trend.

 The Qprofit system is a new exciting binary options trading software which will help us to earn some thousands per month on autopilot. It welcomes many beta testers to that website with full access. If you want to be a part of the Qprofit system software members, just click Qprofit System review. Everyone’s dream is to earn more money without any losses and also without much work. But, this software is not the type of software what we are looking for.

It is really a great development by a binary trader who is well established and experienced. It enables the investors to perform trading easily with comfort. It is a binary trading software which helps the traders to predict the binary options trend and win in their respective options.

Does it actually work?

Many people will think binary trading is very risky and we cannot take back the money we invested. But, it is highly volatile in the return of investment. The algorithms used in the Qprofit system software is choosing a winning profitable trade. The profitable trade is 95% possible here in this software.


  • More potential profits
  • It is completely transparent
  • No need of previous experience in trading
  • No downloads required, it is fully web-based
  • Easy to watch Qprofit system from smartphones
  • More than 100 binary trading signals will reach so that we earn more wealth than we invested.

The negative side of the Qprofit system:

  • Internet connection is a must.
  • Should spend some time over here to grow our wealth
  • 100% success cannot be guaranteed.
  • The software will not be opened until you deposit money.

Binary options robot:

There are many automated binary options robots available in the market. The binary options robots will make profits in situations in which people are not quick enough to take the advantage. It will not help us to make more efficient and maximum profits.

How to find out a scam binary options robot:

There are many ways to find out the software is a scam or legit.

  1. Poor website design:

This is an important tip to make sure when you really want to trade a binary options robot. Because the scammers will not worry about the design of the web page as they never want to spend time and money on it. So, the design of the website is untrustworthy.

  1. No previous history:

There will be no history of the experience and success of the software. Their intention is just to make the traders fool.



Thus conclude that Qprofit system software will be a good start for your growth in trading. Don’t trade with the real money when you want to verify the software.





What is with the millennials and money that everyone believes that they do not know how to handle their money despite they having a job, paying their bills and having a good credit. Is it their investment policies or their spending routines that make this generation stand out like a sore thumb? Let’s find out.


The plastic users

One reason for the millennials to be singled out is their incessant use of credit cards. They use a credit card to meet most of their expenses between paychecks without any qualms. But at the same time if the expenses are huge and unexpected they are shaken up and on tenterhooks. It is a common feature among millennials to be unprepared sudden expenses. They do not know how to invest wisely; these youngsters have good scores but very poor spending habits. In fact, several studies have shown that this group of people argue with their partners over financial issues and in some cases, the acrimony created by poor handling of finances leads to divorce.


How can you become a money-wise millennial?

It is never too late to introspect and make a new beginning. Hence, those who wish to grow old without being at the mercy of credit sharks must take the following steps:

  • Curb credit card expenses: There are two reasons you depend on your credit card: Insufficient income and mindless spending.

Because your income is not enough you must look at alternate means to supplement your income. The Bitcoin code software is one of the many automated trading systems that people have been using to dabble in the stock market and make some extra income. While using the bitcoin code does seem to be an easy choice to increase your income, it is crucial that you take a close look at your expenses and spend only what is essential. Curbing your credit card expenses is important to maintain your credit scores because once you default on your payment your scores will drop. And the chances of your repayment will decrease steadily if you don’t get your act together as soon as possible.

  • Start saving: Nobody knows when an emergency can strike; therefore make it a habit to stash away a percentage of your income for unexpected expenses. The fluctuation in income either due to the economic scenario or due to change of jobs also impacts the finances of this group. So, those who haven’t been saving for the rainy day start doing it now and become money-wise.


1.Fintech Ltd.  – An Indubitable Review

Trading interests many and there have been many who have been benefitted greatly using few of the reliable trading websites. Equally, there are some scam-filled binary trading websites too but the trader will have to be a little cautious and informed about the various websites before making his investments into them. Trading is one field wherein you will be able to see your returns only after depositing some of your money into them. It is your money that goes into the trading platform, tries to make some riches for you and comes back to you in doubles or three times more. But this is possible only when it is a reliable, trustworthy website and not with those that have been formed and designed just to loot the hard earned money of the traders.

This identification and selection of the right website for your right intentions are, of course, a difficult task and for many traders, their trading platforms might actually gobble off some amount before getting them into the right platform. On the other hand, there have also been traders who have made their favors and lucks work for them at the first shot itself. So it is the trader and his intelligence that would get him to the right place and platform if he tries to learn something about trading and its nuances. Initially, when the binary trading concept came into existence there were a very few trading platforms and the choices given to people were very less and a point to be definitely mentioned is that all of them were reliable and were all formed to help the traders have a real benefit from their deposits made. But the presence and the number of such websites has increased in the market and they are in the manifold. It is now a dare for the traders to pick and choose the right one for their money.

Fintech Ltd., one of the reliable trading platforms is one that has benefitted and helped many in making some profits from the deposits made into the trading platform. This is a proven, reliable trading website and people without a second thought can actually make their deposits here and start trading without a hitch. This is a new software from the hands of an experienced and very popular financier, Daniel Roberts and is one of the new entrants into the trading field. The online investigation team has come out with views and suggestions that this is a reliable trading platform for all the traders and that all their functions, rules and payouts are all legal and are executed professionally making it a very reliable and indisputable website to trade on. Using this software is very simple and all are kept at the basic levels to make the trader feel comfortable and satisfied with their demands and requirements. And for those who are new to trading, this is considered one the best trading platforms to start their venture with and they are sure to learn the important things about trading from here.

New South Wales Fixed Speed Cameras – Revenue

Where streets are paved with gold

FIXED speed camera sites, fines issued and total revenue for 2004-05

1. MOSMAN, Macpherson St: 24,243, $2,979,935

2. DARLINGHURST, Eastern Distributor: 17,777, $2,394,989

3. GWYNNEVILLE, Southern Freeway: 15,864, $2,211,353

4. KOGARAH, Princes Highway: 16,367, $2,141,113

5. KOGARAH, Princes Highway: 15,160, $2,106,555

6. EPPING, Carlingford Rd: 14,726, $1,878,901

7. BATEAU BAY, The Entrance Rd: 14,057, $1,813,086

8. AUBURN, Parramatta Rd: 11,144, $1,518,903

9. WOODBURN, Pacific Highway: 10,724, $1,384,456

10. MURRURUNDI, New England Highway: 9642, $1,321,371

11. BANORA POINT, Pacific Highway: 8539, $1,270,647

12. GREYSTANES, M4 Motorway (westbound): 7659, $1,115,664

13. EDGECLIFF, New South Head Rd: 8146, $1,113,666

14. TENTERFIELD, New England Highway: 8253, $1,058,847

15. CANTERBURY, Canterbury Rd: 8015, $998,887

16. LOCHINVAR, New England Highway: 7239, $987,872

17. BURWOOD, Hume Highway: 7505, $936,774

18. WEST PENNANT HILLS, Castle Hill Rd: 6963, $932,458

19. GATESHEAD, Pacific Highway: 7279, $930,507

20. LANE COVE, Centennial Ave: 7354, $918,498

21. MOSMAN, Spit Rd: 6998, $917,718,br>22. WOLLONGONG, Prince Highway: 6842, $878,568

23. RYDE, Blaxland Rd: 7042, $868,423

24. WENTWORTHVILLE, M4 Motorway (eastbound): 5886, $860,622

25. BARDWELL PARK, M5 Motorway (eastbound): 6052, $858,907

26. ARNCLIFFE, 5 Motorway: 6372, $852,934

27. CONCORD WEST, Concord Rd: 6783, $832,470

28. KURRAJONG, Bells Line of Rd: $5931, $826,428

29. GYMEA, President Ave: 5669, $688,240

30. CARLINGFORD, Pennant Hills Rd: 5402, $649,626

31. URUNGA, Pacific Highway: 4975, $644,987

32. CAMELIA, James Ruse Drv: 4827, $602,366

33. NOWRA, Princes Highway: 4568, $586,462

34. OURIMBAH, Pacific Highway: 4574, $583,003

35. ALSTONVILLE, Bruxner Highway: 3603, $574,184

36. PEAKHURST, Henry Lawson Drive: 4110, $559,692

37. WYOMING, Henry Parry Drv: 4228, $512,445

38. PICNIC POINT, Henry Lawson Drive: 4009, $498,476

39. WOLLONGONG, Princes Highway: 3482, $473,117

40. FAIRY MEADOW, Balgownie St: 3804, $470,535

41. SYDNEY, Sydney Harbour Tunnel (northbound): 3436, $457,130

42. BONNYRIGG, Elizabeth Drv: 3209, $405,813

43. MAYFIELD WEST, Pacific Highway: 3176, $401,351

44. CLUNES, Bangalow Rd: 2684, $392,712

45. MACQUARIE PARK, Delhi Rd: 2945, $392,230

46. NORTH WILLOUGHBY, Eastern Valley Way, 2881, $383,243

47. BEAUTY POINT, Spit Rd: 3156, $370,183

48. MOSMAN, Spit Rd: 2658, $355,078

49. WOY WOY, Ocean Beach Rd: 2703, $352,176

50. SYDNEY, Sydney Harbour Tunnel (southbound): 2483, $336,712

51. LANSVALE, Hume Highway: 2433, $308,864

52. NORTH PARRAMATTA, Pennant Hills Rd: 2274, $307,542

53. BERRY, Princes Highway: 2296, $287,017

54. WOY WOY NORTH, Blackwall Rd: 2261, $276,529

55. BOTANY, General Holmes Drv: 1758, $263,907

56. QUEANBEYAN, Lanyon Drive: 1877, $261,915

57. GWYNNEVILLE, Southern Freeway: 1943, $256,547

58. RANKIN PARK, McCaffrey Drv: 2086, $255,249

59. FAIRFIELD EAST, Fairfield St: 1982, $240,903

60. DARLINGHURST, Eastern Distributor: 1542, $230,978

61. YAGOONA, Hume Highway: 1644, $229,103

62. GREYSTANES, Greystances Rd: 1686, $227,027

63. OURIMBAH, F3 Freeway: 1430, $212,186

64. SANDGATE, Pacific Highway: 1433, $192,283

65. BURWOOD HEIGHTS, 1453, $178,757

66. SOUTH WINDSOR, George St: 1407, $178,514

67. TERRIGAL, Terrigal Drv: 1381, $173,103

68. FRENCHS FORREST, Warringah Rd: 1267, $159,935

69. WARRAWONG, Northcliffe Drive: 1233, $157,417

70. BULLI, Princes Highway: 1149, $140,945

71. VALLA BEACH, Pacific Highway: 811, $134,174

72. VALLEY HEIGHTS, Great Western Highway: 908, $117,629

73. NORDS WHARF, Pacific Highway: 748, $103,194

74. KUNDABUNG, Pacific Highway: 623, $99,677

75. SANDGATE, Pacific Highway: 728, $97,983

76. COOLAC, Hume Highway: 698, $99,121

77. PADSTOW, Gibson Ave: 776, $97,112

78. LAMBTON, Newcastle Rd: 661, $93,408

79. SCONE, New England Highway: 623, $92,303

80. KORORA, Pacific Highway: 608, $88,821

81. QUIRINDI, New England Highway: 503, $82,895

82. BLANDFORD, New England Highway: 550, $79,722

83. BOMADERRY, Bolong Rd: 570, $74,602

84. GORDON, Eastern Arterial Rd: 519, $62,100

85. CORRIMAL, Northern Distirbutor (southbound): 417, $60,698

86. HERONS CREEK, Pacific Highway: 374, $60,149

87. CORRIMAL, Northern Distributor (northbound): 364, $58,756

88. WEST GOSFORD, Manns Rd: 426, $51,490

89. CARINGBAH, Captain Cook Drv: 334, $42,986

90. TARCUTTA, Hume Highway: 234, $37,698

91. BULLI (N), Princes Highway: 264, $35,151

92. BROUGHTON, Princes Highway: 202, $28,632

93. KOOTINGAL, New England Highway: 172, $25,466

94. BEN LOMOND, New England Highway: 203; $28,255

95. WARDELL, Pacific Highway: 152, $25,237

96. MACKSVILLE, Pacific Highway: 169, $25,081

97. LLANGOTHLIN, New England Highway: 164, $23,825

98. SHOALHAVEN HEADS, Bolong Rd: 142, $20,144

99. FOXGROUND, Princes Highway: 115, $17,192

100. BROGO, Princes Highway: 91, $12,973

101. BERKSHIRE PARK, Richmond Rd: 79, $11,480

102. KARIONG, Woy Woy Rd: 74, $9364

103. URUNGA, Pacific Highway, Hungry Head: 61, $9187

104. GREEN VALLEY, Cowpasture Rd: 53, $8513

105. TILBUSTER, New England Highway: 40, $5847

106. BURRINGBAR, Tweed Valley Way: 31, $4278

107. OCEAN SHORES, Pacific Highway: 18, $2340

108. WOLLONGBAR, Bruxner Highway: 17, $2279

109. ANGLEDALE, Princes Highway: 3 infringements, $413

  1. Trading With The Brit Method

Trading has certain basic beliefs and rules following which would actually give the actual experience of binary trading online. The intention of any trader online with any trading platform is to make some extra earnings and for this, they try to make their deposits into a reliable software that would help them with their trading dreams and expectations. But a basic trading secret which every trader should understand before making his entry into the trading field is that none of the platforms, both reliable and non-reliable ones can actually give a profit all the time; profits and losses will happen alternatively and every profit would be followed by a loss and vice-versa. So no trader should or can expect a trading software to always help him with a huge amount as pay-out. But if there is one that promises to do this in the market, then understand that there is something fishy with their trading strategies and process because there has been no trading software that has actually done this and this is not a possible thing at all.

Once this is understood, the trader is already 50% ready to take up trading online. Deciding to trade with the Brit method is one good and wise option and making a deposit in this software is a worthy one for there is a decent percentage of returns promised to the traders. And the minimum deposit is also kept little low though it looks a little higher and expensive than the other trading applications. The services offered here in this trading platform are very reliable and all the brokers who are attached to this software are all licensed and they function here with the main intention of helping the traders make some money at the end of their numerous numbers of trades. Selection of brokers is one very important thing when comes to trading online with binary options. With Brit method, you can stay safe and you are sure to get linked up with a broker who is a licensed agent to work as a broker online.

Again the options that are made available for the traders for their trading purposes are huge here and the traders are at freedom to choose one of their choices. They can check and follow the market and get to know the ones that are performing good in the trading market and based on their analysis and understanding they can make their deposits in the assets or binary options of their choice.

It is also important that the traders consider the comments and reviews by the online trading community before making any decisions about the trading platforms they are planning to trade with because this online community is in constant touch with the market and helps in giving valuable comments. According to them, the Brit method is a reliable one suitable for all types of traders. And hence traders, especially the beginners can start venturing the trading world with this platform as their base and it is sure to give them a good kick start to their trading experiences.

Digital Speed Cameras to have a trial run at these locations during 2010

QLD Speed Cameras Digital
QLD Speed Cameras Digital

Mobile Speed Cameras

Mobile speed cameras are operated by uniformed police officers at sites that have been approved according to strict selection criteria. Crash history is said to be the major factor used to determine these sites. Mobile speed cameras may also be placed at:

  • areas of high risk speeding behaviour that have been checked and referred to regional traffic advisory committees (or where we can make the most money)
  • roadworks — for the health and safety of workers. (where we can catch you out with really low stupid speed limits with no “SPEED CAMERA” signs)
    1. HB Swiss – A Hustle?

    With a trading market filled with both legitimate and fraudulent software and applications, traders are at great risk of frauds and cheats. In fact, with more number of dwindled ones, the traders always tend to doubt even the reliable trading platforms. It is for providing a clarity about such confusion that we have the trading watchdogs online who function as investigators and try to scan, analyze and interrogate all the new software when they make an entry into the trading world for the first time. Likewise HB Swiss is a new entrant and many traders had doubts if they can take to trade on this platform or is one among the other dubious ones. But when there was an elaborate investigation about this software, the results came out with rejoicing comments. Traders were happy to note that this was a 100% reliable one and that the traders can without any confusions trade on their different options.

    There are many good and valuable reviews and comments from traders who have tasted the fruits of success here and this is like a preface for those who would love to try their trading luck here. This HB Swiss trading platform is definitely not a scam with tall and mesmerizing claims like the others operating in the market and hence is a proven reliable trading software.

    HB Swiss Features

    There are few important and exciting features that make the trading experience of a trader a really enjoyable one and it is definitely fun trading and experiencing a profit here.

    • It is a software for all traders, meaning for both beginners and the experienced traders. There is absolutely no need for any specific trading experience or knowledge for starting your trading journey from here and the trading software takes up this good job of teaching and making the traders experts in binary trading with their features and benefits. So it is a software that is endorsed to ensure success.
    • Generally, traders place their trades and make deposits after analyzing the trend charts and forecasts of the markets but with this software, there is no need for such research or analysis. It is a platform that is designed to meet and fulfill all the needs of all the traders.
    • This is a software that promises to offer quality services and benefits. All the features, rules and restrictions are kept open here and nothing is hidden from the traders in their trading journey. The traders get to know everything about this software and hence this is considered a very transparent trading software.
    • Every trader is given an opportunity to experience and enjoy profits and it is believed that all the traders would start seeing the results in just 3 minutes of their trading journey and this is a proven fact and is not a misguiding one.
    • This software does not demand anything from the traders in the name of fees or taxes. The amount that is made as the deposit amount by the traders is completely and fully utilized for their trading purpose and nothing is deducted from it in the name of fees or taxes. So the traders get to enjoy a complete trading experience.

Fixed speed cameras have been introduced into south east Queensland at:

  • Bruce Highway at Burpengary
  • Main Street at Kangaroo Point (approach to Story Bridge)
  • Pacific Motorway at Tarragindi.

An additional six speed camera sites will be introduced in Queensland during 2009 at:

  • Gold Coast Highway at Labrador — from 28 September
  • Gold Coast Highway at Broadbeach — from 31 August
  • Warrego Highway at Redwood — from 31 August
  • Warrego Highway at Muirlea (Ipswich) — coming soon
  • Nicklin Way at Warana — coming soon
  • Sunshine Motorway at Mooloolaba (Mountain Creek) — coming soon, lucky you!

Thought you might be interested in reading the Queensland Speed Camera Assessment notes from the QLD Police Dept. Assessment – Executive Briefing Note


Freedom of Information Requests

“There seems to be a culture of secrecy from the police and government bodies, surrounding the setup, operation and testing of speed measuring equipment. “

Are the motoring public purposely being kept in the dark?

Are police worried that you will find out the rules?

FOI Request 1 – Received 2nd June 2004
Documents Available
FOI Request 1 – Given access to Multanova Manuals

Want to make your own Freedom of Information Request and don’t know how to proceed? Each State has its own FOI Laws. Know your rights! Mading an application is an easy process.

  1. Brit Method In Detail

There are a lot of things that a trader gets to enjoy if he chooses to start his trading ventures with the Brit method. Every trading platform promises to offer the trader with some very important and unique features using which would actually be of great help in the trading processes and strategies. Each feature has something in store for the traders and at each step one or the other trading feature would extend a helping hand to move above in the trading ladder. So a trader should first get to know the different features offered by a trading platform and he should understand the uses and benefits of using that feature at the right time for the right purpose which would directly lead to making a profit.

Brit method is one such trading software that comes with loads and loads of features, all of which are designed and assigned to help the traders in achieving their dreams of making some profits. Let`s now get into the details of each of these features and see how these can be used when for making the trading the best experience ever.

  • First and foremost the support that each trader gets with the trading platform. For any trading platform, it is important that they keep and make the traders feel important and comfortable trading on their platforms. And for this, it is important that they help the traders with all clarifications and this is greatly done when there is a customer backup team working for the trading software. Brit method has one very excellent customer support team and this team looks into all that a customer would expect from a trading software. They are on work 24/7 ever ready to assist and clarify all the doubts and clarification required by the traders. So you will never feel left out here but there is always a team behind you to assist you throughout the process.
  • The number of trading options that are made available to the traders is huge. They are free to select from the various options based on their choices and almost all the trading binary options that are available in the market are made available here making it easy for all types and kinds of traders to establish a good position in the market.
  • There is a free demo account that is made available to all the traders and anybody can take up to have their trading interest checked here with this free trial account. Actually, it is mandatory for all the trading platforms to have an account like this for making their traders understand and rely on their functions and operations. And the one that has a trial account is considered a legit one because they allow the trader to sneak a peek into all their trading functions even before taking a legal entry into them and this way they get to know about the trading platform and all about their trading processes before making a deposit with them.

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Well our FOI application has finally been completed after many months of waiting. In short what have we found out?

We found out that it takes persistence to get what your after for one thing. We were initially given incorrect information about the source of the Multanova manual and its availability. This prompted us to call for a review of the decision. Our review was successful and we have been given access to the Multanova manual at our pleasure.

The Multanova Speed Camera system is supplied to WA Police by DCD Systems in Sydney, Tel: 02 9420 2500. They apparently can’t supply user manuals to the public for some reason.

  • All WA Police image recording speed measurement device operations shall be in accordance with The Australian Standards. (Example “Radar Speed Detection”)
  • Standards Australia advised that AS 2898 is available in two parts. AS 2898.1 -2003 Part1, “RADAR SPEED DETECTION – Functional Requirements & Definition Hard copy $37.95, Download from internet, $34.16
  • AS 2898.2 -2003 Part 2, “RADAR SPEED DETECTION – Operational Procedures Hard copy $62.23 ISBN: 0-7337-5461-9 Published 11 Augh 2003 still current No. Pages 11, Download $50.91. Both are available at 165 Adelaide Tce., Perth. Another option is the Alexander State Reference Library at Perth Cultural Centre. They have each available to read and I assume, take copies of relevant pages.
  • We also came across this relvant Australian Standards AS 4691.1-2003 being for Laser – based speed detection devices – Definitions and device requirements. Part 2 Australian Standards AS 4691.2-2003 being for Laser – based speed detection devices – Operational Procedures.
  • If you want to go to court and know what your talking about, this is a great stack of essential information.
  • The Minister of Police appears to have misled parliament in that speed camera signs ARE part of the deployment criteria for speed cameras. She had answered in parliament that speed camera signs are not mandatory.
  • Image Speed Measurement Devices are not to be operated at the base of any steep incline unless otherwise directed or authorised by the Assistant Commissioner, Traffic and Operations Support (or his delegate)
  • Image Speed Measurement Devices are not to be placed within 100 metres of the approach or departure side of a change of speed zone unless otherwise directed by the Assistant Commissioner, Traffic and Operations Support (or his delegate).
  • The speed camera tolerance in Western Australia is set ridiculously low. The Assistant Commissioner of Traffic believes that drivers should only be given 1 km/h tolerance which is the in built error factor in the Multanova speed camera.
  • Speed cameras should not be placed in the vacinity of a traffic sign, metal fence or objects moving in the background such as trains, that can reflect radar signals and give false readings.
  • Speed cameras that use side angle projection of the radar beam (Multanova), must be setup parallel to the traffic flow. Why? Because of the “Coseine Error Factor” which will cause the speed reading to be inaccurate – Either reading too high or too low, depending on how far off parallel the camera is pointing. This is why all speed cameras shouldn’t be setup on curved roads, only straight roads. (An interesting point to clarify – “How is a camera setup parallel to the road? From video footage I have seen of a speed camera setup, its done by “thumb” (rough enough is good enough!). So much for accuracy!
  • Speed cameras must be tested before and after setup. (Only to show if there is a gross error with the device.) All speed cameras must be certified every 12 months as being accurate. ( The question arises -“Is every 12 months good enough after roughly 3 – 4 setups per day in WA for example?” Thats roughly after every 1500 x 2 = 3000 pickup and drops in the back of a car!)

What does all this mean. It means that there are requirements for the correct placement and setup of speed camera devices such as the Multanova and Gatso speed cameras. Rules that must be followed for setup, placement and testing! But are they?

It isn’t in accordance with the Police Deployment Criteria to place a speed camera at the bottom of a steep hill. (Great Eastern Highway springs to mind). Some of our FOI documents could be used in court as mitigating circumstances against wrongly placed speed cameras.

As yet we haven’t taken advantage of the Police Departments kind offer to view the Multanova manual, but will do so soon provided there is some interest shown by readers of this web site.

You can download copies of our documents to see what information was refused and the information that was released by the police departments and their reasoning for the decisions.

Documents Released Under Freedom of Information:

Deployment Criteria page 001 Request for Decision Review Page 1
Speed Camera Tolerance page 002 Request for Decision Review Page 2
FOI Application page 1 FOI Application page 5
FOI Application page 2 FOI Application page 6
FOI Application page 3 FOI Application page 7
FOI Application page 4
Speed Enforcement in Australia – PDF format Volume 1 Practice – Performance – Outcome Measures Volume 2 Appendicies

detection. There sure are! I just love this line from the technical details that we found.

It is not permissible for the operator of the measuring instrument to use the margins of error accordingly to plan for his advantage.”


Technical data on the Multanova 6F – Ka band (Australia):

Transmitter frequency: 34.3 GHz ± 100 cycles per second (Ka-volume)
Transmitting power: typically 0.5 mW
Profit of the antenna: 30 db (related to isotropic emitter)
Half value width of the radar jet: horizontal 5°
vertically 5°
Angle of camera regarding driving direction: 22°
Measuring range: 25 – 250 km/h
Traffic margins of error: 25 – 100 km/h: ± 3 km/h
100 – 250 km/h: ± 3% (under rounding up to next integral value)In accordance with § 6 exp. 1a of the eichordnung (changed by 3. Regulation of the eichordnung, BGBl. I 2000, S. 1307) is not permissible for the operator of the measuring instrument to use the margins of error according to plan for his advantage.
Stage absolute range appropriate seitenabstand
far approx.. 40 m approx.. 15 m
means approx.. 15 m approx.. 6 m
near approx.. 7 m approx.. 3 m
Measuring direction: After choice flowing of traffic, arriving traffic or traffic judge identification automatically by computers
Photo camera:
Model JACKNAU sight recorder ROBOT 36 DET engine recorders
Exposure time firmly 1/500 s firmly 1/750 s
Objectively Nikor 1:2/85 mm Cutter 1:3,8/75 mm
Negative size 24 x 36 mm 24 x 35 mm
Screen sequence max. 2 Aufn./s max. 2 Aufn./s

Angle between Z-axis and driving direction:
16° with vehicle installation
19° with stand enterprise

Electronic flashes: MB-2E installation lightning
MB-2A mobile lightning
Lightning energy: Basic equipment: 85 Watts and/or. 170 Watts (switchable)
Option: 170 Watts and/or. 340 Watts (switchable)
Reloading time: with 85 Watts: 0.8 s
with 170 Watts: 1.5 s
with 340 Watts: 3.0 s

If you radar detector is able to pick up the Multanova Speed Camera, its doing pretty well considering that the main radiation jet is angled at 22 degrees to the road direction. Also the fact that it only emits 0.5 mwatts. You would probably get more radiation standing close to your microwave oven. It is interesting to note the ambient radiation that emanates from the device in all other directions.

Radiation plate 6F Multanova Speed Camera
This is the radiation pattern around the speed camera. The central protrusion in the graph is the microwave jet.

So an accurately calibrated “off the shelf” Multanova speed camera is at best accurate to plus or minus 3 km/h below 100km/h. That makes a mockery of the Western Australian Police 1km/h tolerance factor, doesn’t it.

Further down in this article you will learn of the “Cosine Effect”. This can vary the reading by as much as 4km/h at 60km/h.

How Speed Camera Radar Works

The basic method of radar speed measurement is:

  • Radar device sends out radio signal
  • Signal strikes a solid object, e.g. an automobile, and is reflected (bounced) back towards the radar receiver.
  • If there is a relative motion between the object and the radar transmitter, the reflected signal will be different from the transmitted signal in frequency
  • The amount of difference (frequency or Doppler shift) indicates the speed of the relative motion
  • On the X-band, for every 1 mph difference in speed there is a 31.4Hz difference in frequency

On the K band, for every 1 mph difference in speed there is a 72.0Hz difference in frequency .

Radar is usually known by letter-band nomenclature, e.g., k-band. speed camera radar is unlike traditional hand-held radar in two important respects, all of which increase its accuracy and make it almost impossible for violators to detect the beam before their violation has been registered. These differences are its low output, which at maximum strength is only twenty-five milliwatts, and its cross-the-road beam, rather than the traditional hand-held down-the-road beam.

The accuracy of the unit is greatly enhanced by these two differences, the low output and the beam direction. The speed camera radar unit beam cuts across the road, and can thus detect the vehicle exceeding the set speed limit at a closer range to the patrol vehicle. Furthermore, with a maximum output of only twenty-five milliwatts, the farthest an object’s velocity has been measured is across 5 lanes of highway. These two differences also result in making the radar beam almost impossible for radar detectors to identify until they have already been recorded by the unit.

Speed camera radar systems usually operate on the K-band at 24.15 GHz. In Western Australia they operate on the Ka-band which is at a higher frequency. This is important because this is designated by the FCC as one of only two bandwidths permanently assigned for use by police radar.

As a car passes through the beam emitted by the radar antenna, the radar antenna makes a series of measurements of the vehicle’s speed. Upon identification of a speeder from these measurements a signal is sent to the central processing unit, which in turn directs the high speed camera to take a photograph of the violator.

Certification of Speed Cameras

Radar units by their nature are sophisticated instrumentation. As such great care is given to the accuracy of various products prior to being put into public use. This is usually by a method called type certification. Several agencies throughout the world specify the requirements for and actually test radar units prior to allowing the sale. The Organization Internationale de Mï’trologie Lïgale (OIML), the Nederlands Meetinstituut (NMI) and the British Home Office are three such organizations.

In Western Australia, the police prefer to use a single camera that takes photographs of the front of the speeding. This has the advantage of identiying the driver at the same time.

Speed cameras in other states of Australia, are setup to take photographs of the rear of the offending vehicles or is some cases, like Victoria both front and back at the same time. This has the advantage of identifying motorbike licence plates that are currently not obtainable with the Western Australian system setup.

In other countries speed cameras are setup to take photographs of the front and or, the rear of a speeding vehicle.

Upon on determining that a violator has been identified, the unit’s internal computer calculates the timing delay for the second camera, based on the speed of the offending vehicle, the length of the patrol car, and the angle of the cameras. The second camera, which is aimed out the front window of the photo-radar vehicle, then takes a photograph. This second image captures the rear of the offending vehicle as it drives away from the unit. This photograph is used to identify the vehicle when no front plate is visible on the first photograph. As with the first photograph, this second violation photograph contains encrypted data pertaining to the time, date and speed of the violation.

Cameras used in photo-radar are usually high-speed, industrial cameras. Unlike other cameras, Photo radar speed cameras are designed for traffic enforcement photography. A high speed flash system is integrated into the photographic unit, allowing for enforcement on a 24-hour basis. The flash unit is usually synchronized at 1/1000 of a second, and is used for both day and night deployments. The flash bulb is sealed within a water-resistant housing, and is located on the outside of the unit. The high-speed of the camera flash allows for the units safe operation during both day and night deployments.

Radar Emission and Detection

Fundamental to the operation of a speed camera system is the emission of a microwave beam and the detection of the reflected signal.

As a car passes through the beam emitted by the radar antenna, the unit additionally undergoes a self-test to verify its accuracy. If it is not operating properly, then the unit automatically enters standby mode. If the self-check is successfully completed, the radar antenna takes a series of measurements of the vehicle’s speed. These figures are then averaged, and if any deviates from the mean by more than 2% the photograph is not taken. Always giving the driver the benefit of the doubt, the radar antenna takes additional measurements of the speeding car passing through its beam. These measurements are then compared to the average speed calculated from the first set of measurements. If any of these deviate, then the vehicle is not photographed.

Tuning Fork

The system may also come equipped with an internal or external Tuning Fork which is used to independently check the vibration at the beginning and end of each deployment. Since standard tuning forks do not create a histogram similar to that created by a vehicle, software capable of distinguishing between actual and simulated vehicle Doppler radar readings must often be employed. This error prevention algorithm must be designed to prevent common mis-reads created by objects found in the urban environment, such as the vibration of electrical substations.

Radar Beam Angle, Width, and Power

Radar antennas emit beams at specific angles and specific power levels depending on the vendor. Using an appropriate angle and low power ensure that radar detectors are incapable of detecting the speed camera until they are in the beam and an accurate speed measurement has already been determined. A 5 degree beam width and an antenna measuring angle of 20 degrees are typical and allows for accurate speed measurements of vehicles on roadways from 1 to 5 lanes in width.

Cosine Effect

Since it is impractical to place a photo-radar unit in same vector as the vehicle being measured, a correction must be made to account for any displacement. A normal deployment frequently set the radar at a 20 degrees angle relative to the direction of travel. The technique for calculating the correction is called the cosine effect.

The cosine effect is used to determine the actual speed of a vehicle given the indicated speed and the angle of the beam.

This relationship is expressed as: True Speed = Indicated Speed/Cosine q

A Power Source

The radar antenna and radar control unit (CU) are usually powered by an independent battery pack, which contains a minimum of two 26Ah 12V DC sealed lead acid marine type batteries capable of supplying all required power for a full day’s operation, and a 240V AC recharging system. The radar antenna and CU can not be operated while the 240V AC recharging system is supplying the battery. This technique complies with all case law requirements regarding a separate power supply for the radar antenna and RDU. These components should not be connected in any way to the vehicle’s battery power.

The Camera Unit

The cameras used in photo-radar systems are high speed industrial cameras. Cameras used in photo-radar system are specifically designed for traffic enforcement photography. The front facing camera’s usual 90 mm lens is designed for capturing the characters on rear license plates. This is of great importance because the lens is the critical ingredient in the quality of the photograph. Picture quality is a function of camera type – digital vs wet film. If wet film is used, lens length and quality, negative size, film type and processing will impact the image quality.

Illumination – Speed Camera Flash Units

A flash tube and optimized lamp reflector is usually required to properly illuminate a vehicle. It must be capable of providing adequate illumination under all light and weather conditions, including:

  • Up to four lanes in one direction
  • Varying levels of ambient light conditions from full sunlight to no external light source

The flash system must also be safe for passing motorists. Many citizens are concerned about frontal flash and may claim that it is unsafe to expose a driver to such a bright light. In reality the flash is intense but of very short duration. It is much less distracting than lightning and there are no cases of recorded accidents resulting from flash units used in photo enforcement. In some cases as in Western Australia, red filters are used over the flash units to reduce the affect but these are most frequently used with black and white film since they produce poor color images.

Flash Intensity

Flash intensity is as critical with photo-radar as it is with other forms of photo enforcement. The lower position of the flash as well as the relative close proximity of the vehicle being photographed aids in obtaining quality photographs. Lighting the interior of a vehicle for purposes of driver identification for those jurisdictions requiring it is equally a problem, however. Cameras are usually pre-adjusted to provide optimum light under the widest range of conditions. However, in the event that an adjustment is required, flash settings can usually be selected on site.

Photograph Rate and Volume

Cameras able to take in excess of two photographs per second are usually used in photo-radar systems. Such cameras are also able to take many thousands of photographs before needing servicing. These cameras far exceed the durability specifications for standard professional 35MM cameras usually seen by professional photographers. Such reliability is very important for high-volume purposes such as traffic photography.

Speed cameras are usually completely automated. This includes automatic camera activation controlled by the radar antenna. The cameras are manually or automatically leveled and pre-aligned with the radar antenna. The film can easily be loaded and unloaded, and any length of film from a standard 36 frame roll to a professional 100 ft. (800 frames) roll can usually be used with the cameras.