Financial Analytics is nothing but analyzing the financial statements to know the profitability of a business or project.  It is helpful in finding out how profitable a business would be in long term.  It helps in knowing the solvency status of the business.  The world of business is often affected by the turmoil in the external environment.  Today’s world is more of trade wars and financial risks.  There is a lot of political instability and indifference.  Hence the importance of financial analytics is more. Continue reading to know the basics about financial analytics.

Functions of the financial analyst:

  1. Find out the financial requirements of the company. This can be based on the present level of functioning of the company as well as the near future expansions.
  2. He should correctly assess the performance of investment instruments. There are various types of investment in the market like shares, bonds commodities, cryptocurrency etc.

He should be well versed with the latest trend like Ethereum code.  Based on his knowledge he should rightly predict the returns of the investment.

  1. Making investment decisions
  2. Predicting the future earning capacity of the company.
  3. Analyze the government regulations on business and taxes and predicts the impact of these on the company’s growth.

Importance of Financial Analytics:

Businesses find financial Analytics play a vital role in the growth and development in the following ways:

  1. Timely information is needed by business houses to take critical business decisions in a fast manner. Financial Analytics helps in providing timely information.
  2. In the world of high uncertainty, there is a vital requirement for forecasting and planning.
  3. Planning helps in protecting from unforeseen emergencies.
  4. Utilizing the assets in a better way is possible because of financial analytics.
  5. It helps in improving profitability.
  6. It helps in maintaining liquidity.
  7. It reduces wastage.
  8. It uses financial statements to find out the financial ratios. Using these financial ratios various vital elements like liquidity, earning capacity etc. are found.

Nowadays the finance department’s role in a business has changed manifold.  Analysis and prediction have become part of its functions.  Hence Financial Analytics is gaining importance.  The complexity of business processes has increased.  These complexities lead to various queries.  Financial Analytics helps in finding the answer to all the queries.  Many new concepts like data warehousing have emerged because of Financial Analytics. Moreover, the size of organizations has increased.  It has become necessary to integrate the various business functions to make the analytical perspective more effectively.

Nowadays, people prefer to go to supermarkets for shopping purposes as they get a wide range of products over there when considered to the normal shops were items are limited. Even though such retailing has turned to be trendy practice, operating it successfully is more like a challenging part. In addition, the emergence of these supermarkets in every corner is making the competition even tougher.

Invest in a smart way

The core planning of structuring up a such a retailing business involves investing in the appropriate manner. In fact, this forms the basic element of functional efficacy and also, the scope of the business size. Also, ensure you could strongly support the near future needs and operation of the company with the money you have. Do not risk yourself as any business field see the up’s and down which is the part of its functioning mode.

Tips that could help you to succeed

  1. Take care of your inventories. The primary area you need to focus while setting up this kind of business is the proper management of your inventories or stock of items. Further, you should make sure that the products are stored in the racks and that too in an organized and optimized way. The things must be within easy reach and also should be in their right place so that you need not to create a mess while looking around for a thing.

Moreover, make it a practice to record the list of incoming and outgoing items that help you in easy accounting too. Many inventory software is available that could easily handle this situation in an overall manner. Continue reading to know more about its advantages.

  • Make note of the existing things thereby knowing the things that are in demand and those which do not get sold easily,
  • The purchases and sales made,
  • Cash account and so on.
  1. Get the right staff members for the job. Potential, as well as positive workforce, is always a true asset of the organization. Make sure they warmly welcome each customer and decently help them to get the products they want.
  2. The pleasant experience is one of the great factors. Keep your place neat and tidy so that the customers feel invited. Also, the people have a feeling of buying hygienic products while they are at your place. Additionally, a pleasant environment can always uplift the customer’s mood to enjoy a grand shopping and could indeed benefit you.

Ethereum Code – That’s The Way To Go

Cryptocurrency trading has picked up wings in the past few years and has been flying ever since. It has that luring effects which attracts even a common man to start trading with it even though the risks associated with this pseudo currency system is unquestionably high. Cryptocurrency trading market can be very easily compared to an airplane that is flying at a certain height. There are several factors that are required to keep the airplane flying. The most important one factor being the thrust provided by the engines to keep the flight propelled. The moment the flight loses the thrust from the engines, it’s going to take a free fall spiraling downwards.

The cryptocurrency trading market is exactly similar to this. It requires lots of efforts and thrust from your side as an investor to keep your investment alive and flying. The moment this force that you provide in terms of the time you spend in studying the market, predicting and anticipating the market volatilities and making the right decision through consistent observation, the market will start falling and your investments may start biting your back because there is an inevitable downward force that is always pulling the market downwards.

This trading bot does the job for you

It is too much to ask from a common man who wishes to make money from the cryptocurrency trading market that much amount of time and efforts because he has his full-time duties and commitments he has to cater for. Now the question is, who is going to give that thrust which is required for your investment to keep flying. The answer is simple, with the advent of technology in all field, specifically designed auto trading crypto robots working on complex algorithmic platforms are available in the market today.

Auto trading crypto robots can do everything you wish to do but you are unable to because of the lack of time. It ultimately processes all required data and makes the right investment for you. Among plenty of auto trading robots available in the market, I would on any day chose Ethereum code for you. This uniquely designed tool does the job for you very clinically without creating any ruckus. It is completely self-sufficient and menu driven platform that is very imaginative to work with. Check out for more information on Ethereum code Ltd. review.


Cryptocurrency – Why Is It Popular?

In recent times, one must have definitely come across the terms – Bitcoins, Ethereum, Dash, Ripple, Litecoin etc. They are all popular cryptocurrencies traded in the market. The growth of cryptocurrencies since its evolution has been phenomenal. While some are still unaware of its value and returns, many traders and companies have started to realize the importance of this market.

Cryptocurrencies are digital assets that are exchanged using cryptographic encryption. The developers used extremely complex code systems and built these protocol using high-end computer principles in order to prevent duplication or fraud. This unique feature gave rise to popularity in this market. The Invention of crypto robots and software helps interested users who are unfamiliar with this market to gain a successful return. Read this full report to know how crypto robots benefit users from this trading. This market will stay popular for years due to following advantages.

  1. Security: Strong encryption code is the main reason that still keeps public puzzled about cryptocurrency. The algorithms, encryption code are developed advanced to prevent any fraud, alteration, reversal of any transaction. This builds safety and develops the confidence in users to trade in this market.
  2. Transactions: With the clear concept of a peer-to-peer transaction, this market eliminates the intermediaries. There is no brokerage charges, commission, and agent fee in these transactions. In addition to this, cryptocurrency market is completely decentralized. Meaning, there is no controlling authority. It is the user (parties to the transaction) who decides the supply and value of cryptocurrency.
  3. Transaction fees: This is something that bothers every individual while making an online payment. A certain percent of value gets deducted as transaction fee from the original value. In such cases, transaction fee might be a significant amount if the value is higher. This does not apply in cryptocurrency market. There is no transaction fee as the data miners are paid from their own network.
  4. Simplified procedure: The Sign in procedures is way easier compared to the regular stock market. To initiate the trade in bitcoin, all you need to do is to create a bitcoin wallet, address and deposit some bitcoins to the wallet. Signing up is done in a day. However, settlement of transactions normally takes time as they need to be verified by encrypted codes.
  5. Double Spending: One major problem which we face in every payment network platform is double spending. This problem is eliminated by implementing a confirmation mechanism and maintaining a public ledger called Blockchain. The transactions once recorded in Blockchain are final and cannot be altered or reversed.

There is always a risk factor associated with the trade. Every product has its own pros and cons which differs from users to users based on their priority and requirement. Some features may be advantageous to few people, while some may not. Considering the future growth of cryptocurrency market, investors can definitely give a thought to invest in this platform if they wish to enjoy outstanding returns.

1.Fintech Ltd.  – An Indubitable Review

Trading interests many and there have been many who have been benefitted greatly using few of the reliable trading websites. Equally, there are some scam-filled binary trading websites too but the trader will have to be a little cautious and informed about the various websites before making his investments into them. Trading is one field wherein you will be able to see your returns only after depositing some of your money into them. It is your money that goes into the trading platform, tries to make some riches for you and comes back to you in doubles or three times more. But this is possible only when it is a reliable, trustworthy website and not with those that have been formed and designed just to loot the hard earned money of the traders.

This identification and selection of the right website for your right intentions are, of course, a difficult task and for many traders, their trading platforms might actually gobble off some amount before getting them into the right platform. On the other hand, there have also been traders who have made their favors and lucks work for them at the first shot itself. So it is the trader and his intelligence that would get him to the right place and platform if he tries to learn something about trading and its nuances. Initially, when the binary trading concept came into existence there were a very few trading platforms and the choices given to people were very less and a point to be definitely mentioned is that all of them were reliable and were all formed to help the traders have a real benefit from their deposits made. But the presence and the number of such websites has increased in the market and they are in the manifold. It is now a dare for the traders to pick and choose the right one for their money.

Fintech Ltd., one of the reliable trading platforms is one that has benefitted and helped many in making some profits from the deposits made into the trading platform. This is a proven, reliable trading website and people without a second thought can actually make their deposits here and start trading without a hitch. This is a new software from the hands of an experienced and very popular financier, Daniel Roberts and is one of the new entrants into the trading field. The online investigation team has come out with views and suggestions that this is a reliable trading platform for all the traders and that all their functions, rules and payouts are all legal and are executed professionally making it a very reliable and indisputable website to trade on. Using this software is very simple and all are kept at the basic levels to make the trader feel comfortable and satisfied with their demands and requirements. And for those who are new to trading, this is considered one the best trading platforms to start their venture with and they are sure to learn the important things about trading from here.

New South Wales Fixed Speed Cameras – Revenue

Where streets are paved with gold

FIXED speed camera sites, fines issued and total revenue for 2004-05

1. MOSMAN, Macpherson St: 24,243, $2,979,935

2. DARLINGHURST, Eastern Distributor: 17,777, $2,394,989

3. GWYNNEVILLE, Southern Freeway: 15,864, $2,211,353

4. KOGARAH, Princes Highway: 16,367, $2,141,113

5. KOGARAH, Princes Highway: 15,160, $2,106,555

6. EPPING, Carlingford Rd: 14,726, $1,878,901

7. BATEAU BAY, The Entrance Rd: 14,057, $1,813,086

8. AUBURN, Parramatta Rd: 11,144, $1,518,903

9. WOODBURN, Pacific Highway: 10,724, $1,384,456

10. MURRURUNDI, New England Highway: 9642, $1,321,371

11. BANORA POINT, Pacific Highway: 8539, $1,270,647

12. GREYSTANES, M4 Motorway (westbound): 7659, $1,115,664

13. EDGECLIFF, New South Head Rd: 8146, $1,113,666

14. TENTERFIELD, New England Highway: 8253, $1,058,847

15. CANTERBURY, Canterbury Rd: 8015, $998,887

16. LOCHINVAR, New England Highway: 7239, $987,872

17. BURWOOD, Hume Highway: 7505, $936,774

18. WEST PENNANT HILLS, Castle Hill Rd: 6963, $932,458

19. GATESHEAD, Pacific Highway: 7279, $930,507

20. LANE COVE, Centennial Ave: 7354, $918,498

21. MOSMAN, Spit Rd: 6998, $917,718,br>22. WOLLONGONG, Prince Highway: 6842, $878,568

23. RYDE, Blaxland Rd: 7042, $868,423

24. WENTWORTHVILLE, M4 Motorway (eastbound): 5886, $860,622

25. BARDWELL PARK, M5 Motorway (eastbound): 6052, $858,907

26. ARNCLIFFE, 5 Motorway: 6372, $852,934

27. CONCORD WEST, Concord Rd: 6783, $832,470

28. KURRAJONG, Bells Line of Rd: $5931, $826,428

29. GYMEA, President Ave: 5669, $688,240

30. CARLINGFORD, Pennant Hills Rd: 5402, $649,626

31. URUNGA, Pacific Highway: 4975, $644,987

32. CAMELIA, James Ruse Drv: 4827, $602,366

33. NOWRA, Princes Highway: 4568, $586,462

34. OURIMBAH, Pacific Highway: 4574, $583,003

35. ALSTONVILLE, Bruxner Highway: 3603, $574,184

36. PEAKHURST, Henry Lawson Drive: 4110, $559,692

37. WYOMING, Henry Parry Drv: 4228, $512,445

38. PICNIC POINT, Henry Lawson Drive: 4009, $498,476

39. WOLLONGONG, Princes Highway: 3482, $473,117

40. FAIRY MEADOW, Balgownie St: 3804, $470,535

41. SYDNEY, Sydney Harbour Tunnel (northbound): 3436, $457,130

42. BONNYRIGG, Elizabeth Drv: 3209, $405,813

43. MAYFIELD WEST, Pacific Highway: 3176, $401,351

44. CLUNES, Bangalow Rd: 2684, $392,712

45. MACQUARIE PARK, Delhi Rd: 2945, $392,230

46. NORTH WILLOUGHBY, Eastern Valley Way, 2881, $383,243

47. BEAUTY POINT, Spit Rd: 3156, $370,183

48. MOSMAN, Spit Rd: 2658, $355,078

49. WOY WOY, Ocean Beach Rd: 2703, $352,176

50. SYDNEY, Sydney Harbour Tunnel (southbound): 2483, $336,712

51. LANSVALE, Hume Highway: 2433, $308,864

52. NORTH PARRAMATTA, Pennant Hills Rd: 2274, $307,542

53. BERRY, Princes Highway: 2296, $287,017

54. WOY WOY NORTH, Blackwall Rd: 2261, $276,529

55. BOTANY, General Holmes Drv: 1758, $263,907

56. QUEANBEYAN, Lanyon Drive: 1877, $261,915

57. GWYNNEVILLE, Southern Freeway: 1943, $256,547

58. RANKIN PARK, McCaffrey Drv: 2086, $255,249

59. FAIRFIELD EAST, Fairfield St: 1982, $240,903

60. DARLINGHURST, Eastern Distributor: 1542, $230,978

61. YAGOONA, Hume Highway: 1644, $229,103

62. GREYSTANES, Greystances Rd: 1686, $227,027

63. OURIMBAH, F3 Freeway: 1430, $212,186

64. SANDGATE, Pacific Highway: 1433, $192,283

65. BURWOOD HEIGHTS, 1453, $178,757

66. SOUTH WINDSOR, George St: 1407, $178,514

67. TERRIGAL, Terrigal Drv: 1381, $173,103

68. FRENCHS FORREST, Warringah Rd: 1267, $159,935

69. WARRAWONG, Northcliffe Drive: 1233, $157,417

70. BULLI, Princes Highway: 1149, $140,945

71. VALLA BEACH, Pacific Highway: 811, $134,174

72. VALLEY HEIGHTS, Great Western Highway: 908, $117,629

73. NORDS WHARF, Pacific Highway: 748, $103,194

74. KUNDABUNG, Pacific Highway: 623, $99,677

75. SANDGATE, Pacific Highway: 728, $97,983

76. COOLAC, Hume Highway: 698, $99,121

77. PADSTOW, Gibson Ave: 776, $97,112

78. LAMBTON, Newcastle Rd: 661, $93,408

79. SCONE, New England Highway: 623, $92,303

80. KORORA, Pacific Highway: 608, $88,821

81. QUIRINDI, New England Highway: 503, $82,895

82. BLANDFORD, New England Highway: 550, $79,722

83. BOMADERRY, Bolong Rd: 570, $74,602

84. GORDON, Eastern Arterial Rd: 519, $62,100

85. CORRIMAL, Northern Distirbutor (southbound): 417, $60,698

86. HERONS CREEK, Pacific Highway: 374, $60,149

87. CORRIMAL, Northern Distributor (northbound): 364, $58,756

88. WEST GOSFORD, Manns Rd: 426, $51,490

89. CARINGBAH, Captain Cook Drv: 334, $42,986

90. TARCUTTA, Hume Highway: 234, $37,698

91. BULLI (N), Princes Highway: 264, $35,151

92. BROUGHTON, Princes Highway: 202, $28,632

93. KOOTINGAL, New England Highway: 172, $25,466

94. BEN LOMOND, New England Highway: 203; $28,255

95. WARDELL, Pacific Highway: 152, $25,237

96. MACKSVILLE, Pacific Highway: 169, $25,081

97. LLANGOTHLIN, New England Highway: 164, $23,825

98. SHOALHAVEN HEADS, Bolong Rd: 142, $20,144

99. FOXGROUND, Princes Highway: 115, $17,192

100. BROGO, Princes Highway: 91, $12,973

101. BERKSHIRE PARK, Richmond Rd: 79, $11,480

102. KARIONG, Woy Woy Rd: 74, $9364

103. URUNGA, Pacific Highway, Hungry Head: 61, $9187

104. GREEN VALLEY, Cowpasture Rd: 53, $8513

105. TILBUSTER, New England Highway: 40, $5847

106. BURRINGBAR, Tweed Valley Way: 31, $4278

107. OCEAN SHORES, Pacific Highway: 18, $2340

108. WOLLONGBAR, Bruxner Highway: 17, $2279

109. ANGLEDALE, Princes Highway: 3 infringements, $413

  1. Trading With The Brit Method

Trading has certain basic beliefs and rules following which would actually give the actual experience of binary trading online. The intention of any trader online with any trading platform is to make some extra earnings and for this, they try to make their deposits into a reliable software that would help them with their trading dreams and expectations. But a basic trading secret which every trader should understand before making his entry into the trading field is that none of the platforms, both reliable and non-reliable ones can actually give a profit all the time; profits and losses will happen alternatively and every profit would be followed by a loss and vice-versa. So no trader should or can expect a trading software to always help him with a huge amount as pay-out. But if there is one that promises to do this in the market, then understand that there is something fishy with their trading strategies and process because there has been no trading software that has actually done this and this is not a possible thing at all.

Once this is understood, the trader is already 50% ready to take up trading online. Deciding to trade with the Brit method is one good and wise option and making a deposit in this software is a worthy one for there is a decent percentage of returns promised to the traders. And the minimum deposit is also kept little low though it looks a little higher and expensive than the other trading applications. The services offered here in this trading platform are very reliable and all the brokers who are attached to this software are all licensed and they function here with the main intention of helping the traders make some money at the end of their numerous numbers of trades. Selection of brokers is one very important thing when comes to trading online with binary options. With Brit method, you can stay safe and you are sure to get linked up with a broker who is a licensed agent to work as a broker online.

Again the options that are made available for the traders for their trading purposes are huge here and the traders are at freedom to choose one of their choices. They can check and follow the market and get to know the ones that are performing good in the trading market and based on their analysis and understanding they can make their deposits in the assets or binary options of their choice.

It is also important that the traders consider the comments and reviews by the online trading community before making any decisions about the trading platforms they are planning to trade with because this online community is in constant touch with the market and helps in giving valuable comments. According to them, the Brit method is a reliable one suitable for all types of traders. And hence traders, especially the beginners can start venturing the trading world with this platform as their base and it is sure to give them a good kick start to their trading experiences.

Digital Speed Cameras to have a trial run at these locations during 2010

QLD Speed Cameras Digital
QLD Speed Cameras Digital

Mobile Speed Cameras

Mobile speed cameras are operated by uniformed police officers at sites that have been approved according to strict selection criteria. Crash history is said to be the major factor used to determine these sites. Mobile speed cameras may also be placed at:

  • areas of high risk speeding behaviour that have been checked and referred to regional traffic advisory committees (or where we can make the most money)
  • roadworks — for the health and safety of workers. (where we can catch you out with really low stupid speed limits with no “SPEED CAMERA” signs)
    1. HB Swiss – A Hustle?

    With a trading market filled with both legitimate and fraudulent software and applications, traders are at great risk of frauds and cheats. In fact, with more number of dwindled ones, the traders always tend to doubt even the reliable trading platforms. It is for providing a clarity about such confusion that we have the trading watchdogs online who function as investigators and try to scan, analyze and interrogate all the new software when they make an entry into the trading world for the first time. Likewise HB Swiss is a new entrant and many traders had doubts if they can take to trade on this platform or is one among the other dubious ones. But when there was an elaborate investigation about this software, the results came out with rejoicing comments. Traders were happy to note that this was a 100% reliable one and that the traders can without any confusions trade on their different options.

    There are many good and valuable reviews and comments from traders who have tasted the fruits of success here and this is like a preface for those who would love to try their trading luck here. This HB Swiss trading platform is definitely not a scam with tall and mesmerizing claims like the others operating in the market and hence is a proven reliable trading software.

    HB Swiss Features

    There are few important and exciting features that make the trading experience of a trader a really enjoyable one and it is definitely fun trading and experiencing a profit here.

    • It is a software for all traders, meaning for both beginners and the experienced traders. There is absolutely no need for any specific trading experience or knowledge for starting your trading journey from here and the trading software takes up this good job of teaching and making the traders experts in binary trading with their features and benefits. So it is a software that is endorsed to ensure success.
    • Generally, traders place their trades and make deposits after analyzing the trend charts and forecasts of the markets but with this software, there is no need for such research or analysis. It is a platform that is designed to meet and fulfill all the needs of all the traders.
    • This is a software that promises to offer quality services and benefits. All the features, rules and restrictions are kept open here and nothing is hidden from the traders in their trading journey. The traders get to know everything about this software and hence this is considered a very transparent trading software.
    • Every trader is given an opportunity to experience and enjoy profits and it is believed that all the traders would start seeing the results in just 3 minutes of their trading journey and this is a proven fact and is not a misguiding one.
    • This software does not demand anything from the traders in the name of fees or taxes. The amount that is made as the deposit amount by the traders is completely and fully utilized for their trading purpose and nothing is deducted from it in the name of fees or taxes. So the traders get to enjoy a complete trading experience.

Fixed speed cameras have been introduced into south east Queensland at:

  • Bruce Highway at Burpengary
  • Main Street at Kangaroo Point (approach to Story Bridge)
  • Pacific Motorway at Tarragindi.

An additional six speed camera sites will be introduced in Queensland during 2009 at:

  • Gold Coast Highway at Labrador — from 28 September
  • Gold Coast Highway at Broadbeach — from 31 August
  • Warrego Highway at Redwood — from 31 August
  • Warrego Highway at Muirlea (Ipswich) — coming soon
  • Nicklin Way at Warana — coming soon
  • Sunshine Motorway at Mooloolaba (Mountain Creek) — coming soon, lucky you!

Thought you might be interested in reading the Queensland Speed Camera Assessment notes from the QLD Police Dept. Assessment – Executive Briefing Note


Freedom of Information Requests

“There seems to be a culture of secrecy from the police and government bodies, surrounding the setup, operation and testing of speed measuring equipment. “

Are the motoring public purposely being kept in the dark?

Are police worried that you will find out the rules?

FOI Request 1 – Received 2nd June 2004
Documents Available
FOI Request 1 – Given access to Multanova Manuals

Want to make your own Freedom of Information Request and don’t know how to proceed? Each State has its own FOI Laws. Know your rights! Mading an application is an easy process.

  1. Brit Method In Detail

There are a lot of things that a trader gets to enjoy if he chooses to start his trading ventures with the Brit method. Every trading platform promises to offer the trader with some very important and unique features using which would actually be of great help in the trading processes and strategies. Each feature has something in store for the traders and at each step one or the other trading feature would extend a helping hand to move above in the trading ladder. So a trader should first get to know the different features offered by a trading platform and he should understand the uses and benefits of using that feature at the right time for the right purpose which would directly lead to making a profit.

Brit method is one such trading software that comes with loads and loads of features, all of which are designed and assigned to help the traders in achieving their dreams of making some profits. Let`s now get into the details of each of these features and see how these can be used when for making the trading the best experience ever.

  • First and foremost the support that each trader gets with the trading platform. For any trading platform, it is important that they keep and make the traders feel important and comfortable trading on their platforms. And for this, it is important that they help the traders with all clarifications and this is greatly done when there is a customer backup team working for the trading software. Brit method has one very excellent customer support team and this team looks into all that a customer would expect from a trading software. They are on work 24/7 ever ready to assist and clarify all the doubts and clarification required by the traders. So you will never feel left out here but there is always a team behind you to assist you throughout the process.
  • The number of trading options that are made available to the traders is huge. They are free to select from the various options based on their choices and almost all the trading binary options that are available in the market are made available here making it easy for all types and kinds of traders to establish a good position in the market.
  • There is a free demo account that is made available to all the traders and anybody can take up to have their trading interest checked here with this free trial account. Actually, it is mandatory for all the trading platforms to have an account like this for making their traders understand and rely on their functions and operations. And the one that has a trial account is considered a legit one because they allow the trader to sneak a peek into all their trading functions even before taking a legal entry into them and this way they get to know about the trading platform and all about their trading processes before making a deposit with them.

So sign up today with Brit method and enjoy trading to the maximum.


Well our FOI application has finally been completed after many months of waiting. In short what have we found out?

We found out that it takes persistence to get what your after for one thing. We were initially given incorrect information about the source of the Multanova manual and its availability. This prompted us to call for a review of the decision. Our review was successful and we have been given access to the Multanova manual at our pleasure.

The Multanova Speed Camera system is supplied to WA Police by DCD Systems in Sydney, Tel: 02 9420 2500. They apparently can’t supply user manuals to the public for some reason.

  • All WA Police image recording speed measurement device operations shall be in accordance with The Australian Standards. (Example “Radar Speed Detection”)
  • Standards Australia advised that AS 2898 is available in two parts. AS 2898.1 -2003 Part1, “RADAR SPEED DETECTION – Functional Requirements & Definition Hard copy $37.95, Download from internet, $34.16
  • AS 2898.2 -2003 Part 2, “RADAR SPEED DETECTION – Operational Procedures Hard copy $62.23 ISBN: 0-7337-5461-9 Published 11 Augh 2003 still current No. Pages 11, Download $50.91. Both are available at 165 Adelaide Tce., Perth. Another option is the Alexander State Reference Library at Perth Cultural Centre. They have each available to read and I assume, take copies of relevant pages.
  • We also came across this relvant Australian Standards AS 4691.1-2003 being for Laser – based speed detection devices – Definitions and device requirements. Part 2 Australian Standards AS 4691.2-2003 being for Laser – based speed detection devices – Operational Procedures.
  • If you want to go to court and know what your talking about, this is a great stack of essential information.
  • The Minister of Police appears to have misled parliament in that speed camera signs ARE part of the deployment criteria for speed cameras. She had answered in parliament that speed camera signs are not mandatory.
  • Image Speed Measurement Devices are not to be operated at the base of any steep incline unless otherwise directed or authorised by the Assistant Commissioner, Traffic and Operations Support (or his delegate)
  • Image Speed Measurement Devices are not to be placed within 100 metres of the approach or departure side of a change of speed zone unless otherwise directed by the Assistant Commissioner, Traffic and Operations Support (or his delegate).
  • The speed camera tolerance in Western Australia is set ridiculously low. The Assistant Commissioner of Traffic believes that drivers should only be given 1 km/h tolerance which is the in built error factor in the Multanova speed camera.
  • Speed cameras should not be placed in the vacinity of a traffic sign, metal fence or objects moving in the background such as trains, that can reflect radar signals and give false readings.
  • Speed cameras that use side angle projection of the radar beam (Multanova), must be setup parallel to the traffic flow. Why? Because of the “Coseine Error Factor” which will cause the speed reading to be inaccurate – Either reading too high or too low, depending on how far off parallel the camera is pointing. This is why all speed cameras shouldn’t be setup on curved roads, only straight roads. (An interesting point to clarify – “How is a camera setup parallel to the road? From video footage I have seen of a speed camera setup, its done by “thumb” (rough enough is good enough!). So much for accuracy!
  • Speed cameras must be tested before and after setup. (Only to show if there is a gross error with the device.) All speed cameras must be certified every 12 months as being accurate. ( The question arises -“Is every 12 months good enough after roughly 3 – 4 setups per day in WA for example?” Thats roughly after every 1500 x 2 = 3000 pickup and drops in the back of a car!)

What does all this mean. It means that there are requirements for the correct placement and setup of speed camera devices such as the Multanova and Gatso speed cameras. Rules that must be followed for setup, placement and testing! But are they?

It isn’t in accordance with the Police Deployment Criteria to place a speed camera at the bottom of a steep hill. (Great Eastern Highway springs to mind). Some of our FOI documents could be used in court as mitigating circumstances against wrongly placed speed cameras.

As yet we haven’t taken advantage of the Police Departments kind offer to view the Multanova manual, but will do so soon provided there is some interest shown by readers of this web site.

You can download copies of our documents to see what information was refused and the information that was released by the police departments and their reasoning for the decisions.

Documents Released Under Freedom of Information:

Deployment Criteria page 001 Request for Decision Review Page 1
Speed Camera Tolerance page 002 Request for Decision Review Page 2
FOI Application page 1 FOI Application page 5
FOI Application page 2 FOI Application page 6
FOI Application page 3 FOI Application page 7
FOI Application page 4
Speed Enforcement in Australia – PDF format Volume 1 Practice – Performance – Outcome Measures Volume 2 Appendicies

detection. There sure are! I just love this line from the technical details that we found.

It is not permissible for the operator of the measuring instrument to use the margins of error accordingly to plan for his advantage.”


Technical data on the Multanova 6F – Ka band (Australia):

Transmitter frequency: 34.3 GHz ± 100 cycles per second (Ka-volume)
Transmitting power: typically 0.5 mW
Profit of the antenna: 30 db (related to isotropic emitter)
Half value width of the radar jet: horizontal 5°
vertically 5°
Angle of camera regarding driving direction: 22°
Measuring range: 25 – 250 km/h
Traffic margins of error: 25 – 100 km/h: ± 3 km/h
100 – 250 km/h: ± 3% (under rounding up to next integral value)In accordance with § 6 exp. 1a of the eichordnung (changed by 3. Regulation of the eichordnung, BGBl. I 2000, S. 1307) is not permissible for the operator of the measuring instrument to use the margins of error according to plan for his advantage.
Stage absolute range appropriate seitenabstand
far approx.. 40 m approx.. 15 m
means approx.. 15 m approx.. 6 m
near approx.. 7 m approx.. 3 m
Measuring direction: After choice flowing of traffic, arriving traffic or traffic judge identification automatically by computers
Photo camera:
Model JACKNAU sight recorder ROBOT 36 DET engine recorders
Exposure time firmly 1/500 s firmly 1/750 s
Objectively Nikor 1:2/85 mm Cutter 1:3,8/75 mm
Negative size 24 x 36 mm 24 x 35 mm
Screen sequence max. 2 Aufn./s max. 2 Aufn./s

Angle between Z-axis and driving direction:
16° with vehicle installation
19° with stand enterprise

Electronic flashes: MB-2E installation lightning
MB-2A mobile lightning
Lightning energy: Basic equipment: 85 Watts and/or. 170 Watts (switchable)
Option: 170 Watts and/or. 340 Watts (switchable)
Reloading time: with 85 Watts: 0.8 s
with 170 Watts: 1.5 s
with 340 Watts: 3.0 s

If you radar detector is able to pick up the Multanova Speed Camera, its doing pretty well considering that the main radiation jet is angled at 22 degrees to the road direction. Also the fact that it only emits 0.5 mwatts. You would probably get more radiation standing close to your microwave oven. It is interesting to note the ambient radiation that emanates from the device in all other directions.

Radiation plate 6F Multanova Speed Camera
This is the radiation pattern around the speed camera. The central protrusion in the graph is the microwave jet.

So an accurately calibrated “off the shelf” Multanova speed camera is at best accurate to plus or minus 3 km/h below 100km/h. That makes a mockery of the Western Australian Police 1km/h tolerance factor, doesn’t it.

Further down in this article you will learn of the “Cosine Effect”. This can vary the reading by as much as 4km/h at 60km/h.

How Speed Camera Radar Works

The basic method of radar speed measurement is:

  • Radar device sends out radio signal
  • Signal strikes a solid object, e.g. an automobile, and is reflected (bounced) back towards the radar receiver.
  • If there is a relative motion between the object and the radar transmitter, the reflected signal will be different from the transmitted signal in frequency
  • The amount of difference (frequency or Doppler shift) indicates the speed of the relative motion
  • On the X-band, for every 1 mph difference in speed there is a 31.4Hz difference in frequency

On the K band, for every 1 mph difference in speed there is a 72.0Hz difference in frequency .

Radar is usually known by letter-band nomenclature, e.g., k-band. speed camera radar is unlike traditional hand-held radar in two important respects, all of which increase its accuracy and make it almost impossible for violators to detect the beam before their violation has been registered. These differences are its low output, which at maximum strength is only twenty-five milliwatts, and its cross-the-road beam, rather than the traditional hand-held down-the-road beam.

The accuracy of the unit is greatly enhanced by these two differences, the low output and the beam direction. The speed camera radar unit beam cuts across the road, and can thus detect the vehicle exceeding the set speed limit at a closer range to the patrol vehicle. Furthermore, with a maximum output of only twenty-five milliwatts, the farthest an object’s velocity has been measured is across 5 lanes of highway. These two differences also result in making the radar beam almost impossible for radar detectors to identify until they have already been recorded by the unit.

Speed camera radar systems usually operate on the K-band at 24.15 GHz. In Western Australia they operate on the Ka-band which is at a higher frequency. This is important because this is designated by the FCC as one of only two bandwidths permanently assigned for use by police radar.

As a car passes through the beam emitted by the radar antenna, the radar antenna makes a series of measurements of the vehicle’s speed. Upon identification of a speeder from these measurements a signal is sent to the central processing unit, which in turn directs the high speed camera to take a photograph of the violator.

Certification of Speed Cameras

Radar units by their nature are sophisticated instrumentation. As such great care is given to the accuracy of various products prior to being put into public use. This is usually by a method called type certification. Several agencies throughout the world specify the requirements for and actually test radar units prior to allowing the sale. The Organization Internationale de Mï’trologie Lïgale (OIML), the Nederlands Meetinstituut (NMI) and the British Home Office are three such organizations.

In Western Australia, the police prefer to use a single camera that takes photographs of the front of the speeding. This has the advantage of identiying the driver at the same time.

Speed cameras in other states of Australia, are setup to take photographs of the rear of the offending vehicles or is some cases, like Victoria both front and back at the same time. This has the advantage of identifying motorbike licence plates that are currently not obtainable with the Western Australian system setup.

In other countries speed cameras are setup to take photographs of the front and or, the rear of a speeding vehicle.

Upon on determining that a violator has been identified, the unit’s internal computer calculates the timing delay for the second camera, based on the speed of the offending vehicle, the length of the patrol car, and the angle of the cameras. The second camera, which is aimed out the front window of the photo-radar vehicle, then takes a photograph. This second image captures the rear of the offending vehicle as it drives away from the unit. This photograph is used to identify the vehicle when no front plate is visible on the first photograph. As with the first photograph, this second violation photograph contains encrypted data pertaining to the time, date and speed of the violation.

Cameras used in photo-radar are usually high-speed, industrial cameras. Unlike other cameras, Photo radar speed cameras are designed for traffic enforcement photography. A high speed flash system is integrated into the photographic unit, allowing for enforcement on a 24-hour basis. The flash unit is usually synchronized at 1/1000 of a second, and is used for both day and night deployments. The flash bulb is sealed within a water-resistant housing, and is located on the outside of the unit. The high-speed of the camera flash allows for the units safe operation during both day and night deployments.

Radar Emission and Detection

Fundamental to the operation of a speed camera system is the emission of a microwave beam and the detection of the reflected signal.

As a car passes through the beam emitted by the radar antenna, the unit additionally undergoes a self-test to verify its accuracy. If it is not operating properly, then the unit automatically enters standby mode. If the self-check is successfully completed, the radar antenna takes a series of measurements of the vehicle’s speed. These figures are then averaged, and if any deviates from the mean by more than 2% the photograph is not taken. Always giving the driver the benefit of the doubt, the radar antenna takes additional measurements of the speeding car passing through its beam. These measurements are then compared to the average speed calculated from the first set of measurements. If any of these deviate, then the vehicle is not photographed.

Tuning Fork

The system may also come equipped with an internal or external Tuning Fork which is used to independently check the vibration at the beginning and end of each deployment. Since standard tuning forks do not create a histogram similar to that created by a vehicle, software capable of distinguishing between actual and simulated vehicle Doppler radar readings must often be employed. This error prevention algorithm must be designed to prevent common mis-reads created by objects found in the urban environment, such as the vibration of electrical substations.

Radar Beam Angle, Width, and Power

Radar antennas emit beams at specific angles and specific power levels depending on the vendor. Using an appropriate angle and low power ensure that radar detectors are incapable of detecting the speed camera until they are in the beam and an accurate speed measurement has already been determined. A 5 degree beam width and an antenna measuring angle of 20 degrees are typical and allows for accurate speed measurements of vehicles on roadways from 1 to 5 lanes in width.

Cosine Effect

Since it is impractical to place a photo-radar unit in same vector as the vehicle being measured, a correction must be made to account for any displacement. A normal deployment frequently set the radar at a 20 degrees angle relative to the direction of travel. The technique for calculating the correction is called the cosine effect.

The cosine effect is used to determine the actual speed of a vehicle given the indicated speed and the angle of the beam.

This relationship is expressed as: True Speed = Indicated Speed/Cosine q

A Power Source

The radar antenna and radar control unit (CU) are usually powered by an independent battery pack, which contains a minimum of two 26Ah 12V DC sealed lead acid marine type batteries capable of supplying all required power for a full day’s operation, and a 240V AC recharging system. The radar antenna and CU can not be operated while the 240V AC recharging system is supplying the battery. This technique complies with all case law requirements regarding a separate power supply for the radar antenna and RDU. These components should not be connected in any way to the vehicle’s battery power.

The Camera Unit

The cameras used in photo-radar systems are high speed industrial cameras. Cameras used in photo-radar system are specifically designed for traffic enforcement photography. The front facing camera’s usual 90 mm lens is designed for capturing the characters on rear license plates. This is of great importance because the lens is the critical ingredient in the quality of the photograph. Picture quality is a function of camera type – digital vs wet film. If wet film is used, lens length and quality, negative size, film type and processing will impact the image quality.

Illumination – Speed Camera Flash Units

A flash tube and optimized lamp reflector is usually required to properly illuminate a vehicle. It must be capable of providing adequate illumination under all light and weather conditions, including:

  • Up to four lanes in one direction
  • Varying levels of ambient light conditions from full sunlight to no external light source

The flash system must also be safe for passing motorists. Many citizens are concerned about frontal flash and may claim that it is unsafe to expose a driver to such a bright light. In reality the flash is intense but of very short duration. It is much less distracting than lightning and there are no cases of recorded accidents resulting from flash units used in photo enforcement. In some cases as in Western Australia, red filters are used over the flash units to reduce the affect but these are most frequently used with black and white film since they produce poor color images.

Flash Intensity

Flash intensity is as critical with photo-radar as it is with other forms of photo enforcement. The lower position of the flash as well as the relative close proximity of the vehicle being photographed aids in obtaining quality photographs. Lighting the interior of a vehicle for purposes of driver identification for those jurisdictions requiring it is equally a problem, however. Cameras are usually pre-adjusted to provide optimum light under the widest range of conditions. However, in the event that an adjustment is required, flash settings can usually be selected on site.

Photograph Rate and Volume

Cameras able to take in excess of two photographs per second are usually used in photo-radar systems. Such cameras are also able to take many thousands of photographs before needing servicing. These cameras far exceed the durability specifications for standard professional 35MM cameras usually seen by professional photographers. Such reliability is very important for high-volume purposes such as traffic photography.

Speed cameras are usually completely automated. This includes automatic camera activation controlled by the radar antenna. The cameras are manually or automatically leveled and pre-aligned with the radar antenna. The film can easily be loaded and unloaded, and any length of film from a standard 36 frame roll to a professional 100 ft. (800 frames) roll can usually be used with the cameras.

Victoria – Australia Road Laws & Regulations


Victoria – Speeding Fine Questions & Answers
Scroll down the page or use the links below for information on:

Q: I have received a Traffic Infringement Notice – what happens now?
Q: But I don’t know who was driving my vehicle. What will I do?
Q: Can I pay the fine by instalments?
Q: I have no money to pay the fine. What will I do?
Q: Is it possible to do community work in lieu of the fine?
Q: What happens if I plead not guilty?
Q: What happens if I ignore the Traffic Infringement Notice?
Q: This if my first speeding infringement. May I be given a caution?
Q: My company has a car registered to it. What do I have to do if a company-owned vehicle was detected speeding?
Q: What is the penalty if the company fails to nominate a driver?
Q: I want to view the photograph of my offence
Q: I’ve been overseas and I have received an infringement notice, how do I nominate the driver?
Q: I live overseas and I have received an infringement notice, can I send a cheque in overseas currency?

Q: I have received a Traffic Infringement Notice – what happens now?
The following options are available:

  • Pay the penalty in full
  • Elect to have the matter dealt with by a Magistrate
  • Nominate the offending driver
  • Apply for an extension of time to pay
  • Apply for a caution (if you have a previously good driving record)

Time limits and other restrictions may apply to these options

Find out what to do when you get a speeding fine

Q: But I don’t know who was driving my vehicle. What will I do?
You must provide the Traffic Camera Office with a statutory declaration stating the enquiries you have made to ascertain the identity of the driver and the name and address of all those who may have been the driver at the time.

To download a statutory declaration to nominate another driver, click below:

 Statutory Declaration (47KB)

Get Adobe® Acrobat® Reader

For further information about nominating another driver, click here.

Q: Can I pay the fine by instalments?
No. Your fine must be paid in full. Part payment cannot be accepted. In case of hardship you may apply to Civic Compliance for an extension of time to pay the fine.

If the fine is not paid within the designated time period the matter will go to the PERIN Court system and will accrue associated costs. It may then be possible to apply to the Court and arrange for the penalty and associated costs to be paid by instalments.

Q: I have no money to pay the fine. What will I do?
In cases of hardship you may contact Civic Compliance and apply for an extension of time to pay the fine.

Click here for contact details.

Q: Is it possible to do community work in lieu of the fine?
You cannot simply convert your fine to community work. The only way to do community work instead of paying the fine is when the matter is decided in open court.In some cases a defendant who has been arrested may be eligible for a community custodial permit.

Q: What happens if I plead not guilty?
You have the right to challenge the offence in court, provided that you give the relevant notice within the prescribed time limit. If you plead not guilty the magistrate will decide the case. If you are found guilty, the Magistrate will decide upon any fine and/or licence suspension.

Be aware the Court can increase your fine and impose a licence suspension or cancellation if the Magistrate thinks the offence merits it, having heard all the evidence. So, if you go to Court and are found guilty, you might end up paying more than the fixed penalty – you can lose your licence and might have to pay court costs as well.

Q: What happens if I ignore the Traffic Infringement Notice?
The fixed penalty system is designed so that you can get this matter dealt with quickly and easily without attending court. But if you do not pay the infringement, the matter may automatically be registered for enforcement under the PERIN Court system and you are likely to face additional costs.

Q: This if my first speeding infringement. May I be given a caution?
You can apply for a caution which is decided by Police in their discretion. The criteria they consider include:

  • You have not had a speeding or traffic offence within the previous three years
  • You have held a full driving licence for a minimum of three years
  • You admit the offence
  • Your alleged speed was within 10kph of the speed limit applicable
  • You have not had a caution within the last three years
  • The same criteria applies to a driver who has not had a previous speeding or traffic offence within the preceeding five years, has held a full driving licence for a minimum of five years and the alleged speed was within 15kph of the speed limit applicable.

Click here for further information and details of how to apply for a caution.

Q: My company has a car registered to it. What do I have to do if a company-owned vehicle was detected speeding?
If a company car is detected speeding, it is the a company’s responsibility to nominate who the driver was by completing the Statutory Declaration at the back of the notice.

Your company should not pay the penalty. Tell the Traffic Camera Office who was driving, and they will re-issue a speeding infringement to the speeding driver.

It is an offence if the company fails to nominate the actual driver.

Click here for contact details for Civic Compliance Victoria.

Q: What is the penalty if the company fails to nominate a driver? 
If a company fails to nominate a driver before the due date, the company receives a penalty of $600.

Q: I want to view the photograph of my offence
To view a photograph visit Civic Compliance Victoria at 120 Spencer Street Melbourne, between the hours of 8am and 6pm Monday to Friday (except public holidays).

If you are unable to attend in person, send a cheque or money order for $7.50 to Civic Compliance Victoria at GPO Box 2041S Melbourne with the details of your infringement. A copy will be sent to you by mail.

Q: I’ve been overseas and I have received an infringement notice, how do I nominate the driver?
If the time limit for nominating another driver has not expired you can complete the statutory declaration at the back of the infringement notice nominating the driver and send to Civic Compliance Victoria.

To download a statutory declaration to nominate another driver, click below:

 Statutory Declaration (47KB)

Get Adobe® Acrobat® Reader

Q: I live overseas and I have received an infringement notice, can I send a cheque in overseas currency?
No. Civic Compliance Victoria only accepts cheques in Australian (AUD) currency.

You can pay online with your credit card at any currency you like.

Just select the “Civic

Compliance Victoria” transaction type from the menu, enter the obligation number on your speeding fine (located in the top right-hand corner), and the amount you wish to pay (in Australian dollars — located in the “amount due” section near the bottom of your infringement).

Enter your credit card details, and the money will be taken from your credit card (in Australian dollars) using the bank’s current exchange rate.

  1. HB Swiss With A Twist

There have been many trading software and applications that are currently present in the trading market and most of them have made their presence here with the main aim of helping the traders have a better and enhanced trading experience. Similarly there are also some very dangerous and tricky trading platforms that have been formed only with the intention of cheating the traders of their deposit amount. Now here is a review about one of the most famous and a reliable trading platform. It is none other than the HB Swiss.

For a trading platform to be labeled as legit, there are a few important features that should be present like the analysis of the market, proper planning and scanning the market and its movements etc and on top of all these the funds and the time that goes into the construction and development of the website itself. All these when comes together and when the intentions of the software are to help the traders to enjoy some profits, then it could be considered a reliable trading platform and traders can without any doubts try their luck here. One such trading software is the HB Swiss.

HB Swiss In-depth

The trading market has watchdogs and the main aim of these watchdogs is to gauge the market and scan the market for the best reliable websites. And these investigating team has now come out with a very important and useful information about the HB Swiss software. Yes, this is a review that proves that HB Swiss is a reliable application and that traders can actually take to make their deposits here to try making some profits here. Let`s now take a deeper look at some of the features that they promise to offer the traders.

  • First and foremost it is a very simple and easy software to trade with and all the rules and restrictions are easily elaborated and explained in the software`s website page. There is no need for special download for trading with this software and it is a free to sign up application. There are no downloads and hence you are not required to make any special deposits for entering their platform.
  • The returns promised by this software are nominal and all the traders are benefitted in one or the other Generally, the software or applications that come with unbelievable return percentages are sure to be dubious because there is no possibility for any software to offer more than 80-85%. But there are few trading software that promises to offer above this slab. It is just a trap by the software and many traders, especially the new entrants, fall flat for this finally to get cheated at the end.
  • This HB swiss software allows a free entry to all the traders but with a limit on the number of spots to be traded on. This is mainly to give a good and reliable trading experience to all the traders. So you can sign up for free, absolutely, without spending even a penny from your pockets.

England & Scotland Speed Camera News

  1. Brit – To Be Faced With Grit

With so many trading platforms and binary options software available online, it is a big question and confusion for the traders to stick to one that would make their deposits and investments a worthy and profitable one. All the trading applications, before making an entry into the trading market, gets checked and investigated by the online watchdogs and the licensing groups and it is only after their green signal would any website or software be able to enter the market to help the traders make some profits.

Below is a trustworthy review about one such trading software that is making a buzz in the market. There are a lot many software similar to this and the trader is at absolute freedom to pick and choose the platform of his choice for trading with the various options provided. Now, this Brit method is from the hands of  Jason Taylor, from Britain. Britain is a country that has no restrictions for trading software and hence almost all the trading platforms are operating in this land helping the traders in fulfilling all their dreams and wishes of making some profits.

Now it`s time we expose the truth about this software. This method is created and developed by a person who is from a family of a usual background and there are no reasons for him to cheat or swindle the traders of their hard-earned deposit money. This is one place where generally all the traders get cheated. And this method has not made any lavish offers and returns and hence is one big reason for believing in the trading strategies and options here. There are many other reasons that make trading on this platform a reliable one. The brokers who are attached to this website of trading software are reliable and legit brokers. They work with the real intentions of helping the traders make a profit here with their valuable suggestions and advice. And taking their suggestions and choices is one best way of trading on this platform.

You can easily make an entry into this trading platform with just a minimum deposit of 250 pounds. This might look a little expensive when compared to a few others that offer an entry with an amount lesser than this but here it is for the reliable and quality service that is offered to the traders and it is for this that the traders are demanded to pay so much. Apart from this, there is nothing else for which the trader would be demanded money for like licensing charges, extra fees etc… Everything else apart from this entry is absolutely free for the traders.

There is an automated binary robot working for you if you decide to switch to the automation mode and immediately after your entry, you will get hitched with a reliable broker for your assistance further. This robot would perform all trading activities like scanning the market, analyzing the forecasts etc on behalf of the trader it is working for. So with Brit method your trading money and interests are safe.



News Article Index
“The UK government got cold feet with their dangerous speed camera programme, put on the brakes and saved some lives”
Read Full Story..
Motorway Cameras Road smashes doubled on a mile-long stretch of London motorway AFTER a speed camera went up.
Read Full Story
By Nigel Nelson And David Brown (July 31 2005)
UK Wales – The Department of Transport is to commission research to determine whether speed cameras cause as many accidents as they prevent.
Read Full Story..
Fresh Doubts Over Speed Camera Value – Official papers show that the number of crashes rose instead of fell at 70 sites in London.
Read Full Story..
Speed Cameras’ Effect on Crashes are ‘Exaggerated’

University of Liverpool research team claimsRead Full Story..

Scotland Roads No Safer After Five Years of Speed Cameras
Source: Key 2004 Road Accident Statistics (Scottish Executive, 6/15/2005)
Read Full Story..

The organisers of an anti-speed camera demonstration which saw hundreds of vehicles driving slowly along the M4 have hailed the protest a success. More info..

Protesters meet up before taking part in a 'go-slow' protest on the M4
Protesters met at two service stations before the protest began


The report into cameras was due in June but has been delayed

No new speed cameras will be installed for several months, as the government awaits a review of their effectiveness.
More info..


So naturally they’ve now put TWO more on same 1M stretch

By Nigel Nelson And David Brown (July 31 2005)

ROAD smashes doubled on a mile-long stretch of motorway AFTER a speed camera went up.

And now traffic chiefs have sparked fury by installing two MORE of the hated yellow traps in the same place.

There were only 10 accidents on the East London bend of the M11 in the three years before the first speedcam was installed in 2001.

Only five had anything to do with speed and only two people were severely injured.

But in the following three years – after a 50mph limit was introduced along with the trap – there were EIGHTEEN crashes, new figures reveal.

Eleven were linked with speed and FIVE people were severely hurt, the Transport Department disclosed.

Angry campaigners claim accidents on the stretch of road near the end of the motorway soared because drivers brake sharply when they spot the speedcam .

Motorist Pauline Caley, 42, said: “The speedcams make things more dangerous, not safer. You have to slow down really quickly from 70mph to 40mph and motorists slam on their brakes at the last moment.”

Campaigners believe the statistics are yet more proof the devices are there to raise money for the Government rather than save lives. The first camera – which snares up to 2,000 drivers a day – notches up a staggering £840,000 a week in fines. And a big slice of that goes straight to the Treasury.

Local Tory MP Lee Scott said: “If the original camera isn’t reducing speed-related accidents, why is it there?”

The Highways Agency said the new cameras enforce a 40mph limit to make it safer for work on new road lights.


No New Speed Cameras Until Report

The Department for Transport said no applications for sites would be granted until the completion of an independent review by University College London.

A spokeswoman said it was important to get things right. “We are not blocking the use of new cameras,” she said.

But road safety group Brake expressed concern that suspending decisions on camera applications “could cost lives”.

Meanwhile, road safety group Safe Speed highlighted figures it claimed showed fewer cameras meant fewer deaths.

“The government got cold feet with their dangerous speed camera programme, put on the brakes and saved some lives”


Paul Smith
Safe Speed

The Department for Transport spokeswoman said: “Every year, those in the camera partnership scheme submit applications to us for new camera sites.

“This year we are waiting for this independent review to be completed before approving any new sites. 


Brake said the University College London (UCL) review was nothing new.

” …previous reports have shown speed cameras to reduce deaths and serious injuries by 40% where they are placed” 

Road safety group 

“UCL carries out a review of the effectiveness of speed cameras on an annual basis and previous reports have shown speed cameras to reduce deaths and serious injuries by 40% where they are placed.

“There is no reason to suspect that this year’s review will conclude anything different,” it said in a statement.

The group added that it welcomed any research into speed cameras and was calling for the restrictions on their placement to be relaxed.

Road Deaths

Meanwhile, Safe Speed said Department for Transport figures showed the growth in fixed and mobile speed camera sites grew by under 1% for 2003 to 2004, compared to 33% between 2002 and 2003.

Founder Paul Smith said that was the “true reason” road deaths fell last year.

“The government got cold feet with their dangerous speed camera programme, put on the brakes and saved some lives.

“Speed cameras are a dangerous distraction to drivers, police and local authorities alike. In almost every case there’s something else that’s more important to road safety than strict speed limit compliance.”


Speed Camera U-turn as 500 Sites Rejected

July 15, 2005

By Ben Webster, Transport Correspondent

THE Government is blocking the installation of nearly 500 new speed cameras amid signs that ministers are beginning to doubt the effectiveness of the devices.

The 38 camera partnerships, which include police forces and local authorities, have been ordered not to use cameras at any new sites. The ban includes places where there have been several fatal crashes caused by speeding vehicles.

The Association of Chief Police Officers (Acpo) condemned the ban, saying that it could cost lives because dangerous roads were being left unprotected by cameras.

The Department for Transport is reviewing the rules on deploying cameras after concerns that partnerships have failed to consider alternatives, such as improving junctions or erecting warning signs.

The review is being overseen by Stephen Ladyman, the new Road Safety Minister, who has been caught three times by speed cameras and at one stage had nine points on his licence, one offence away from a six-month ban. More than two million drivers received speed camera fines last year, a tenfold increase in less than a decade.

In a letter sent to the partnerships this week, the department said that it had decided not to approve any more sites until it received a report on the peformance of existing sites. It ordered partnerships to revise their budgets because they would receive less revenue than expected from fines. Under the scheme introduced five years ago, partnerships are allowed to keep a proportion of camera fines to pay for more cameras.

The scheme has prompted claims that partnership staff may favour cameras over other solutions because they need to ensure a steady flow of income to pay their salaries. The department is understood to be concerned that it may have exaggerated the benefits of cameras by failing to allow for the random nature of crashes.

Partnership managers accused the department of failing to give an adequate explanation for the ban. One told The Times: “We submitted our operational case in November but the department has been dragging its feet for eight months. They are clearly rethinking their policy but they haven’t got the honesty to say so.”

Ian Bell, Acpo’s speed camera liaison officer, said: “I am concerned that any delay in installing cameras where they are most needed increases the risk of speed-related crashes.

“All the sites submitted for approval to the department meet the existing criteria so it is difficult to understand why they have not been approved.”

There must have been at least four crashes involving death or serious injury per kilometre in the previous three years before a fixed camera can be installed, or two crashes for a mobile camera.

Three people died recently in two collisions on a road in Cheshire which had already had enough crashes to qualify for a camera. Lee Murphy, manager of the Cheshire partnership, said that the deaths had happened in May, six months after he had applied to the department for permission to begin mobile camera enforcement. “We were still waiting for a response when the accidents happened. We have now decided to use cameras there anyway because we just can’t wait any longer.”

Forces can deploy cameras wherever they choose for up to 15 per cent of the total time that they spend enforcing speed limits.

The Parliamentary Advisory Council for Transport Safety, which supports speed cameras, admitted yesterday that some may not be justified. Rob Gifford, the council’s director, said: “In some cases a partnership may have chosen to install a camera when an engineering solution may have been better.

“But we still believe the department should have the courage of its convictions. Cameras have been proven to work, and people may die if there is a delay in enforcing a site.”

Mr Gifford said the doubling of camera sites to about 6,000 in the past five years had helped to reduce speeding. Since 2000 the proportion of vehicles exceeding the limit in 30mph zones has fallen from 66 per cent to 53 per cent.

Paul Smith, of the anti-camera campaign Safe Speed, said: “I’m delighted that the department appears to be realising that it has used bogus statistics to justify more cameras.”


ABD Research Undermines M4 Speed Cameras

New research from the Association of British Drivers (ABD) has damned the M4 speed cameras as “a massive mistake”. The Association was also charged £111 for access to vital information about the causes of crashes which, it believes, should have been made public.

In data provided by Wiltshire Constabulary, driver inattention topped the list of accident causes, followed by poor lane changing and careless/reckless behaviour. In fact, not one single accident had excess speed as the sole cause.

But included in the crashes that allowed the Partnership to use speed cameras were:

an accident where a pedestrian fell from a bridge

an accident where a gust of wind pushed one lorry into another

several tyre blowout accidents

a crash where a car drove the wrong way up the motorway

“Excess speed” came fifth on a list of accident causes along with driver fatigue. “Excess speed includes accidents where vehicles were travelling within the speed limit but too fast for the conditions – e.g. fog – where cameras could have no effect.

Mark McArthur-Christie, the ABD’s Road Safety Spokesman, said “These statistics show clearly that speed is far from the most significant factor in crashes – but no matter what the causes, the Partnership still thinks cameras are the solution. These figures show that cameras on the M4 will do absolutely nothing for road safety. They should be withdrawn immediately.”

In investigating the causes of M4 crashes, the ABD found that hard data was next to impossible to acquire. The camera Partnership even initially denied that they held data on the causes of crashes. After requesting information from a range of departments and organisations, a request under the Freedom of Information Act was also turned down. The ABD was finally forced to pay £111 to Wiltshire Constabulary for the data.

McArthur-Christie continued, “This data – now we’ve forced it into the public domain – raises very serious questions about the use of speed cameras on the M4. It also raises questions about why the data has not been made public before.”

Brian Gregory, the ABD’s Chairman, said “This work shows clearly that we need to get away from the whole “the answer’s a speed camera, now what’s the question?” approach to road safety. We also want to see them forced to publish the causes of crashes they use to justify cameras.”


Speed cameras: are they more trouble than they’re worth?

Jun 15 2005

The Department of Transport is to commission research to determine whether speed cameras cause as many accidents as they prevent.

Officials have written to universities and research institutes in Wales and England inviting bids for a two-year study, starting in September.

Road safety experts welcomed the news but warned against the study being used for a blanket roll-out of speed cameras.

The probe was prompted by the latest figures which show road deaths fell at 100 camera sites but rose at 77 others.

It comes amid growing warnings from safety experts that at Britain’s 6,000 cameras, drivers may simply slow down on approach and put their foot down afterwards.

There are also concerns that motorists may be steering clear of cameras by using alternative routes.

Outlining the research, DoT officials state, ‘There is a need to establish the broader effects of speed cameras away from the specific camera sites and, in particular, to investigate whether the use of speed cameras causes a migration of accidents to other locations.

‘Research is also needed to demonstrate whether improvements in safety performance at speed camera sites arise from the presence of the cameras or from their deployment at accident cluster locations where safety performance could be expected to improve without treatment.’

The most recent figures for road deaths, from 2003, show a 2% increase in fatalities from 3,431 to 3,508.

And an internal audit by the Department for Transport found the number killed or seriously injured had gone up at one in every seven camera sites.

Motoring groups have welcomed the research project but warned it could be a mixed blessing for drivers.

‘This could be a double-edged sword,’ said Andrew Howard, head of road safety at the AA Motoring Trust. ‘Speed cameras may drive some of the problems elsewhere, but that could be used as an argument for either no speed cameras or more cameras.’

The RAC said it is also alarmed at the possibility of ‘blanket coverage’ of cameras and that the Department for Transport should broaden its perspective.


Speed cameras ‘may cause accidents’ 

By David Williams Motoring Editor, Evening Standard

24 June 2005

Fresh doubts over the value of speed cameras were raised today after a surge in accidents at sites where they are installed.

Official papers show that the number of crashes rose instead of fell at 70 sites in London.

At 32 speed camera sites there were an average of 48 more accidents involving death or serious injury over 12 months compared with previous years.

At 38 traffic light camera sites there were on average 62 more accidents, Association of London Government papers show. An investigation has now been ordered into why the cameras have not cut deaths and injuries. Some could be ripped out.

At other sites engineers will design traffic-calming schemes – in addition to the cameras.

Experts today claimed drivers were “distracted” by cameras and forced to look at their speedometers instead of the road. The alert comes after West Midlands police announced plans to remove 10 cameras and take film out of 150 more after fears they were endangering road safety.

Transport experts are baffled by the rise in accidents at specific sites in London. Overall, cameras cut accidents by 21 per cent, a study by the Transport Research Laboratory shows.

London’s remaining 730 speed and red-light cameras have all seen accident levels fall, according to the London Safety Camera Partnership, made up of councils, police and TfL.

The association’s report says: “The partnership will review the sites where collisions have increased. The review will include casualty/collision analysis, collision mapping and speed survey data.” Some cameras will be replaced by electronic signposts which, instead of fining drivers, display their speeds.

Each investigation will cost about 500 pounds, costing the partnership 35,000 pounds. A partnership spokesman said possible reasons for the cameras ‘ failure included rising traffic-levels and accidents caused by factors other than speed. He said there could be “individual reasons” at each site.

Possible solutions include changing street lighting, road markings and junction layouts and re-phasing traffic lights.

The investigat ion has prompted demands for an overhaul of the Government’s speed camera policy. Paul Smith of SafeSpeed said cameras were “nowhere near as effective” as claimed.

In 50mph zones policed by cameras, drivers spent so long studying their speedometers that they missed 40 per cent of what happened in the road ahead, he claimed.

Edmund King of the RAC Foundation said: “It is highly worrying that accidents are going up. There could be conflict between motorists who slow down for cameras and the growing underclass of unregistered drivers who do not.”

Rob Gifford of the Parliamentary Advisory Council for Transport Safety said: ” Cameras are sometimes the best answer but not always.”

Mon 23 May 2005

Speed Cameras’ Effect on Crashes “Exaggerated”

RESEARCHERS have questioned the ability of speed cameras to reduce crashes on accident blackspots.

Dr Linda Mountain, who led a University of Liverpool research team which investigated 149 blackspots across the UK, claimed the case for cameras on 30mph roads had been “exaggerated”.

The team also looked at the impact of other speed reduction measures, but only humps in the road were found to have a “significant” impact.

Dr Mountain, whose research was funded by a Government body, said: “Speed humps and cushions had a significant impact on fatal and serious accidents but cameras didn’t.

“It was a surprise. I expected to find some reduction.”

In total, humps reduced personal injury accidents by 44 per cent compared to 29 per cent for other engineering schemes and just 22 per cent for cameras.

Sue Nicholson, head of campaigns at the RAC Foundation for Motoring, said: “We have become fixated on speed cameras and need to think up more innovative ways of changing driver behaviour.

“Speed cameras don’t do that.”

Scotland Not Safer After Five Years of Speed Cameras


Road deaths in Scotland have remained static despite five years of speed camera enforcement.

The latest statistics from the Scottish Executive confirm that the number deaths on Scotland’s roads has not decreased since speed cameras were introduced in 1999. Last year, 307 died in driving accidents, a figure essentially unchanged from the 310 deaths figure in 1999.

Safe Speed road safety campaign founder Paul Smith argues that before speed cameras were installed, road deaths decreased every year as a result of improvements in vehicle safety and medical care. Had cameras not been deployed, Smith argues the trends show there would be 100 fewer fatalities every year.

“The truth is that Scottish road safety has not improved one jot since 1999 despite an explosion in the use of speed cameras,” Smith said.

Source: Key 2004 Road Accident Statistics (Scottish Executive, 6/15/2005)

Regional News:

The organisers of an anti-speed camera demonstration which saw hundreds of vehicles driving slowly along the M4 have hailed the protest a success. Protesters meet up before taking part in a 'go-slow' protest on the M4

Saturday, 30 April, 2005

The motorists travelled in two convoys at about 56mph across a 30-mile stretch of the motorway in Wiltshire.


M4 Protest said just over 400 vehicles took part in the action.

Sgt Nick Blencowe said about 12% of all people killed and seriously injured on Wiltshire roads happened on this stretch of motorway.

Traffic disruption

The protest group said it hoped the action would “show safe driving is too complex to be measured in miles per hour”.

Paul Smith, road safety spokesman for M4 Protest, said: “It couldn’t have gone better, it was like a picnic.”

He said the group had counted about 210 vehicles setting out eastbound from Leigh Delamere with another 200 leaving Membury to head west.

“The point wasn’t to cause traffic disruption,” he said. “We didn’t want to cause traffic disruption and we didn’t try to cause traffic disruption.

Police prepare to escort a 'go-slow' protest on the M4

The protesters were given a police escort along the route

Robin Summerhill, a spokesman for M4 Protest, said: “We are not condoning speeding.

“We just feel that far too much emphasis is now placed on speeding and not enough is being done to combat other motoring offences such as driving without insurance and dangerous driving.

“After £700m of fines, road deaths are going up, yet the greedy camera partnerships simply keep expanding.”

The Wiltshire Safety Camera Partnership recently introduced marked vans at fixed, permanent sites, along a 40-mile stretch between Bath and Hungerford.

Sgt Nick Blencowe, from the partnership, said: “We have about 12% of all people being killed and seriously injured on Wiltshire roads happening on this stretch of motorway and that’s quite unacceptable.

“We are charged with reducing death and injury on the roads. If we ignore the motorway we are ignoring a major part of that problem.”

Goodbye Speed Cameras, Hello a Spy in Every Car(click here)

August 24, 2003. Robert Winnett and Dipesh Gadher

The Sunday Times (UK newspaper) revealed today (in three articles) secret government plans examining “electronic vehicle identification” (EVI).

EVEN George Orwell would have choked.

Government officials are drawing up plans to fit all cars in Britain with a personalised microchip so that rule-breaking motorists can be prosecuted by computer.

Dubbed the Spy in the Dashboard and the Informer the chip will automatically report a wide range of offences including speeding, road tax evasion and illegal parking. The first you will know about it is when a summons or a fine lands on your doormat.

The plan, which is being devised by the government, police and other enforcement agencies, would see all private cars monitored by roadside sensors wherever they travelled.

Police working on the car-tagging scheme say it would also help to slash car theft and even drug smuggling.

The Big Brother scheme, outlined in documents shown to The Sunday Times and separate from the various congestion charging schemes being tested, has outraged civil liberties groups who claim the electronic vehicle identification (EVI) programme is draconian and an infringement of human rights. Even those less inclined to worry about Big Brother are likely to take offence. Tony Blackburn, the radio DJ and car buff, said: What are they going to do next? Start putting chips in people to make sure we are eating properly? The Department for Transport (DfT) is co-ordinating the project, the main impetus for which appears to have come from the police and the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency.

The first part of an initial feasibility study, an 85-page document drafted by the Association of Chief Police Officers, is already complete and lists 47 possible applications for EVI.

Written by Superintendent Jim Hammond, head of Sussex traffic police, it acknowledges Big Brother concerns but sets out the benefits. Stolen cars could quickly be traced and uninsured drivers would automatically be identified.

It also notes that cars driven by terrorist suspects or drug smugglers could be monitored even in Europe if, as officials in Brussels envisage, EVI is introduced across the European Union.

The DfT has hired management consultants to co- ordinate the development of the system, which it is thought could become operational by 2007.

New vehicles could have identification chips, containing unique driver details, embedded in their chassis, while older vehicles could have tagged numberplates installed when they had an MoT test.

The existing network of roadside sensors, set up by traffic-monitoring companies and the Highways Agency, would require minimal modification to be used for EVI tracking.

The government is likely to face opposition from motoring groups. We need to have an open discussion about what this technology is being used for, who is being tracked and for what purpose, and what could be the hidden agenda, said Bert Morris, deputy director of the AA Motoring Trust.

Al Clarke, a spokesman for the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders, said: It is a case of whether society wants to accept it. We support speed cameras as a means of deterrence but not installing a fruit machine for the Inland Revenue or Customs in every car.

The DfT confirmed that EVI was being considered.

Liberty, the civil rights organisation, said: This could turn every driver into a potential suspect. It warned that motorists details held on a central computer could form the basis of a stalkers charter if accessed by hackers.

Saboteurs take out 700 speed cameras

UK NEWS: They are Mad – or Motorists Against Detection – and are dedicated to destroying the tools that help to keep roads safe

Stephen Khan

Sunday September 7, 2003

The Observer

They are the black knights of the road; balaclava-wearing highway hitmen out to burn, bomb, decapitate and dismember. But drivers need not fear, for it is speed cameras that this growing band of rebels are after.

Up and down the country, the tools used to keep roads safe are being ripped down, blown up and even shot apart as part of a campaign orchestrated by a gang of web-surfing outlaws. They threaten to become the most popular gang of criminals since Robin Hood and his Merry Men stalked the countryside.

More than 700 cameras across the nation have already been taken out and insiders warn that operations are about to be stepped up. Communicating through internet chat rooms, the activists move under cover of darkness, targeting devices they claim have taken a particularly heavy toll on drivers’ licences and wallets.

From the south coast to the Highlands no camera is safe. Known as Gatsometers, or Gatsos, they are being destroyed at a rate that has alarmed police forces. Particularly destructive cells are operating in north London, Essex and Wales – where they rage against machines deployed by renowned anti-speeding police chief Richard Brunstrom.

Last week Brunstrom, who is also head of the technology committee of the Association of Chief Police Officers, raised the possibility of introducing impairment meters to test the reaction times of elderly motorists, but the violent backlash against his camera crusade is growing.

With each unit costing £24,000 to replace, a huge bill is being run up. But the rebels are unrepentant, claiming the cost is more than met by speeding drivers’ fines. Speed cameras, they argue, are not about keeping roads safe, but about raising revenue. The charred remains of their victims are often adorned with stickers or graffiti which declare cameras to be stealth tax inspectors.

Recent months have seen new operations in Norfolk and central Scotland. A representative of the shadowy Motorists Against Detection (Mad) has claimed responsi bility and said hundreds of members were ready to risk thousands of pounds in fines and up to six months in jail.

The secretive figure who would give his name only as Captain Gatso warned that the campaign was being stepped up.

‘We are moving into a new phase which will see increased operations across the country,’ he said. ‘This is a struggle against an unjust form of taxation. The cameras have nothing to do with road safety and everything to do with raising revenue.

‘Our operatives are responsible people. Many are professionals with families who lead normal lives. Yet they feel aggrieved and will not just sit back and accept this. Direct action is our only form of defence.

‘These cameras are there to make money. The people attacking them are not boy racers or speeders. They are ordinary drivers who use cars to go about their business every day. They are trying to defend their livelihoods.’

Welsh IT consultant John Lockett runs a website used by speed camera saboteurs. He denied encouraging attacks and said direct action was ‘perhaps going a bit far’, but he echoed Captain Gatso’s anger.

‘I don’t endorse this action, but I don’t condemn it either. I’ve just set up a site that lets people known where cameras are. Everyone has a right to know that. What they then go and do is up to them.

‘You shouldn’t be caught for speeding if you have got to overtake a bus, let through an ambulance or swerve to avoid a kid. I think it’s wrong. To place a trap behind a tree, on a very fast corner or down a hill is unfair.’

He claimed to know a three-strong cell operating in South Wales. It had, he said, attacked one Gatso with ham mers so many times that the police had given up and taken it away.

Websites such as Lockett’s allow users to alert each other to new cameras and attacks that have eliminated existing ones.

They promote radar speed trap detectors and warn of the menace of what they call the Talivan – mobile police speed detection units. Other sites used by the rebels proudly display images of burned-out and felled Gatsos.

Even the camera widely touted as Britain’s most successful has been unable to escape their wrath. On the southbound carriageway of the M11 at Woodford, Essex, tyre tacks were found leading away from the toppled device which had been nabbing 2,000 motorists a day. Police believe a lorry driver deliberately reversed into it.

An Essex police officer said: ‘Perhaps if the person who did this could see some of the effects of speeding that we see in hospitals and mortuaries they would think differently about what they have done.’

Northamptonshire police offered a £2,000 reward for help in finding people who used a bomb to take out a Gatso on the A605 at Thrapston. The blast sent shards of metal flying more than 50 feet.

A spokesman for the Association of Chief Police Officers said: ‘Attacking these cameras is an offence. If perpetrators are caught they will be arrested and dealt with.’

A counter-attack against the saboteurs is being launched by Susan Beck of the All Safety Camera Partnership, a publicly-funded body that works with the police to decide where Gatsos should be placed.

Last week it sent leaflets to schools and colleges across England and Wales encouraging young drivers to slow down. Such public safety schemes are partly paid for with speeding fine cash.

Beck said the best way to avoid speeding tickets was to obey the law and ridiculed the assertion that Mad was striking a blow for the public. ‘Cameras reduce death and injuries on the road,’ she said. ‘These units are designed to slow drivers down at recognised casualty hotspots.’

Leader: Back-seat Tax Collector (click here)

The Sunday Times UK – Comment

August 24, 2003

Motorists dread the back-seat driver who mars the freedom of the open road with usually unhelpful observations about their speed and driving ability. The modern equivalent is the speed camera, proliferating alarmingly, which has the effect of turning normally sensible road users into dangerous obsessives, slowing down sharply at the sight of one of these yellow perils and desperately scanning the rear-view mirror for the telltale flashes which show that they have been caught. Now technology is moving in such a way that even these tactics will not work. If you thought the speed camera was bad, there is worse in store. If the traffic police, government officials and the European Union have their way, we will all soon have an electronic back- seat driver in the car with us, monitoring our every move. 

Electronic vehicle identification (EVI), which could be fitted to every car in four to five years, will provide a record of where we travel and how we do it. Performing an illegal U-turn or driving through a red light could be picked up by it, as will driving a car that is not taxed, insured or carrying a valid MoT certificate. Tracking whether we are speeding or not becomes a straightforward matter, one of simply recording how quickly a vehicle has travelled between two roadside sensors and automatically generating a speeding ticket. The Association of Chief Police Officers has identified 47 ways that it will benefit from the new system, including parking offences. 

As always, there is a trade-off here between civil liberties and road safety. The new system could help to keep dangerous drivers off the road. It will also assist in tracking down stolen vehicles and those being driven

without tax, insurance and proper safety checks. The suspicion, however, will be that the system will mainly be used to clamp down further on normally law-abiding drivers and to extract spurious fines from them, while the real lawbreakers continue to get away with it. Motorists do not need a back- seat driver to remind them that this is what usually happens in Britain.